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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 8, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Most existing quantum algorithms are discovered accidentally or adapted from classical algorithms, and there is the need for a systematic theory to understand and design quantum circuits. Here we develop a unitary dependence theory to characterize the behaviors of quantum circuits and states in terms of how quantum gates manipulate qubits and determine their measurement probabilities. Compared to the conventional entanglement description of quantum circuits and states, the unitary dependence picture offers more practical information on the measurement and manipulation of qubits, easier generalization to many-qubit systems, and better robustness upon partitioning of the system. The unitary dependence theory can be applied to systematically understand existing quantum circuits and design new quantum algorithms.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 26, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  5. Abstract

    Quantum computing has the potential to revolutionize computing, but its significant sensitivity to noise requires sophisticated error correction and mitigation. Traditionally, noise on the quantum device is characterized directly through qubit and gate measurements, but this approach has drawbacks in that it does not adequately capture the effect of noise on realistic multi-qubit applications. In this paper, we simulate the relaxation of stationary quantum states on a quantum computer to obtain a unique spectroscopic fingerprint of the computer’s noise. In contrast to traditional approaches, we obtain the frequency profile of the noise as it is experienced by the simulated stationary quantum states. Data from multiple superconducting-qubit IBM processors show that noise generates a bath within the simulation that exhibits both colored noise and non-Markovian behavior. Our results provide a direction for noise mitigation but also suggest how to use noise for quantum simulations of open systems.

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  6. Abstract

    We introduce a new statistical and variational approach to the phase estimation algorithm (PEA). Unlike the traditional and iterative PEAs which return only an eigenphase estimate, the proposed method can determine any unknown eigenstate–eigenphase pair from a given unitary matrix utilizing a simplified version of the hardware intended for the iterative PEA (IPEA). This is achieved by treating the probabilistic output of an IPEA-like circuit as an eigenstate–eigenphase proximity metric, using this metric to estimate the proximity of the input state and input phase to the nearest eigenstate–eigenphase pair and approaching this pair via a variational process on the input state and phase. This method may search over the entire computational space, or can efficiently search for eigenphases (eigenstates) within some specified range (directions), allowing those with some prior knowledge of their system to search for particular solutions. We show the simulation results of the method with the Qiskit package on the IBM Q platform and on a local computer.

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  7. null (Ed.)
  8. Abstract

    Designing quantum algorithms for simulating quantum systems has seen enormous progress, yet few studies have been done to develop quantum algorithms for open quantum dynamics despite its importance in modeling the system-environment interaction found in most realistic physical models. In this work we propose and demonstrate a general quantum algorithm to evolve open quantum dynamics on quantum computing devices. The Kraus operators governing the time evolution can be converted into unitary matrices with minimal dilation guaranteed by the Sz.-Nagy theorem. This allows the evolution of the initial state through unitary quantum gates, while using significantly less resource than required by the conventional Stinespring dilation. We demonstrate the algorithm on an amplitude damping channel using the IBM Qiskit quantum simulator and the IBM Q 5 Tenerife quantum device. The proposed algorithm does not require particular models of dynamics or decomposition of the quantum channel, and thus can be easily generalized to other open quantum dynamical models.

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  9. Abstract

    As several photovoltaic materials experimentally approach the Shockley–Queisser limit, there has been a growing interest in unconventional materials and approaches with the potential to cross this efficiency barrier. One such candidate is dark state protection induced by the dipole–dipole interaction between molecular excited states. This phenomenon has been shown to significantly reduce carrier recombination rate and enhance photon‐to‐current conversion, in elementary models consisting of few interacting chromophore centers. Atomically thin 2D transition metal di‐chalcogenides (TMDCs) have shown great potential for use as ultra‐thin photovoltaic materials in solar cells due to their favorable photon absorption and electronic transport properties. TMDC alloys exhibit tunable direct bandgaps and significant dipole moments. In this work, the dark state protection mechanism has been introduced to a TMDC based photovoltaic system with pure tungsten diselenide (WSe2) as the acceptor material and the TMDC alloy tungsten sulfo‐selenide (WSeS) as the donor material. Our numerical model demonstrates the first application of the dark state protection mechanism to a photovoltaic material with a photon current enhancement of up to 35% and an ideal photon‐to‐current efficiency exceeding the Shockley–Queisser limit.

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