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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Abstract The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) routinely observes magnetic field deflections in the solar wind at distances less than 0.3 au from the Sun. These deflections are related to structures commonly called “switchbacks” (SBs), whose origins and characteristic properties are currently debated. Here, we use a database of visually selected SB intervals—and regions of solar wind plasma measured just before and after each SB—to examine plasma parameters, turbulent spectra from inertial to dissipation scales, and intermittency effects in these intervals. We find that many features, such as perpendicular stochastic heating rates and turbulence spectral slopes are fairly similar inside andmore »outside of SBs. However, important kinetic properties, such as the characteristic break scale between the inertial to dissipation ranges differ inside and outside these intervals, as does the level of intermittency, which is notably enhanced inside SBs and in their close proximity, most likely due to magnetic field and velocity shears observed at the edges. We conclude that the plasma inside and outside of an SB, in most of the observed cases, belongs to the same stream, and that the evolution of these structures is most likely regulated by kinetic processes, which dominate small-scale structures at the SB edges.« less
  3. Monocular visual odometry (VO) suffers severely from error accumulation during frame-to-frame pose estimation. In this paper, we present a self-supervised learning method for VO with special consideration for consistency over longer sequences. To this end, we model the long-term dependency in pose prediction using a pose network that features a two-layer convolutional LSTM module. We train the networks with purely self-supervised losses, including a cycle consistency loss that mimics the loop closure module in geometric VO. Inspired by prior geometric systems, we allow the networks to see beyond a small temporal window during training, through a novel a loss thatmore »incorporates temporally distant (e.g., O(100)) frames. Given GPU memory constraints, we propose a stage-wise training mechanism, where the first stage operates in a local time window and the second stage refines the poses with a "global" loss given the first stage features. We demonstrate competitive results on several standard VO datasets, including KITTI and TUM RGB-D.« less
  4. Few-shot classification aims to recognize novel categories with only few labeled images in each class. Existing metric-based few-shot classification algorithms predict categories by comparing the feature embeddings of query images with those from a few labeled images (support examples) using a learned metric function. While promising performance has been demonstrated, these methods often fail to generalize to unseen domains due to large discrepancy of the feature distribution across domains. In this work, we address the problem of few-shot classification under domain shifts for metric-based methods. Our core idea is to use feature-wise transformation layers for augmenting the image features usingmore »affine transforms to simulate various feature distributions under different domains in the training stage. To capture variations of the feature distributions under different domains, we further apply a learning-to-learn approach to search for the hyper-parameters of the feature-wise transformation layers. We conduct extensive experiments and ablation studies under the domain generalization setting using five few-shot classification datasets: mini-ImageNet, CUB, Cars, Places, and Plantae. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed feature-wise transformation layer is applicable to various metric-based models, and provides consistent improvements on the few-shot classification performance under domain shift.« less
  5. We address the problem of human action classification in drone videos. Due to the high cost of capturing and labeling large-scale drone videos with diverse actions, we present unsupervised and semi-supervised domain adaptation approaches that leverage both the existing fully annotated action recognition datasets and unannotated (or only a few annotated) videos from drones. To study the emerging problem of drone-based action recognition, we create a new dataset, NEC-DRONE, containing 5,250 videos to evaluate the task. We tackle both problem settings with 1) same and 2) different action label sets for the source (e.g., Kinectics dataset) and target domains (dronemore »videos). We present a combination of video and instance-based adaptation methods, paired with either a classifier or an embedding-based framework to transfer the knowledge from source to target. Our results show that the proposed adaptation approach substantially improves the performance on these challenging and practical tasks. We further demonstrate the applicability of our method for learning cross-view action recognition on the Charades-Ego dataset. We provide qualitative analysis to understand the behaviors of our approaches.« less
  6. Human activities often occur in specific scene contexts, e.g. playing basketball on a basketball court. Training a model using existing video datasets thus inevitably captures and leverages such bias (instead of using the actual discriminative cues). The learned representation may not generalize well to new action classes or different tasks. In this paper, we propose to mitigate scene bias for video representation learning. Specifically, we augment the standard cross-entropy loss for action classification with 1) an adversarial loss for scene types and 2) a human mask confusion loss for videos where the human actors are masked out. These two lossesmore »encourage learning representations that are unable to predict the scene types and the correct actions when there is no evidence. We validate the effectiveness of our method by transferring our pre-trained model to three different tasks, including action classification, temporal localization, and spatio-temporal action detection. Our results show consistent improvement over the baseline model without debiasing.« less
  7. While deep learning models have achieved unprecedented success in various domains, there is also a growing concern of adversarial attacks against related applications. Recent results show that by adding a small amount of perturbations to an image (imperceptible to humans), the resulting adversarial examples can force a classifier to make targeted mistakes. So far, most existing works focus on crafting adversarial examples in the digital domain, while limited efforts have been devoted to understanding the physical domain attacks. In this work, we explore the feasibility of generating robust adversarial examples that remain effective in the physical domain. Our core ideamore »is to use an image-to-image translation network to simulate the digital-to-physical transformation process for generating robust adversarial examples. To validate our method, we conduct a large-scale physical-domain experiment, which involves manually taking more than 3000 physical domain photos. The results show that our method outperforms existing ones by a large margin and demonstrates a high level of robustness and transferability.« less
  8. Few-shot classification aims to learn a classifier to recognize unseen classes during training with limited labeled examples. While significant progress has been made, the growing complexity of network designs, meta-learning algorithms, and differences in implementation details make a fair comparison difficult. In this paper, we present 1) a consistent comparative analysis of several representative few-shot classification algorithms, with results showing that deeper backbones significantly reduce the gap across methods when domain differences are limited, 2) a slightly modified baseline method that surprisingly achieves competitive performance when compared with the state-of-the-art on both the mini-ImageNet and the CUB datasets, and 3)more »a new experimental setting for evaluating the cross-domain generalization ability for few-shot classification algorithms. Our results reveal that reducing intra-class variation is an important factor when the feature backbone is shallow, but not as critical when using deeper backbones. In a realistic, cross-domain evaluation setting, we show that a baseline method with a standard fine-tuning practice compares favorably against other state-of-the-art few-shot learning algorithms.« less