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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2022
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  4. ABSTRACT We characterize the extreme heartbeat star system MACHO 80.7443.1718 in the Large Magellanic Cloud using Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) photometry and spectroscopic observations from the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) and SOAR Goodman spectographs. MACHO 80.7443.1718 was first identified as a heartbeat star system in the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) with $P_{\rm orb}=32.836\pm 0.008\, {\rm d}$. MACHO 80.7443.1718 is a young (∼6 Myr), massive binary, composed of a B0 Iae supergiant with $M_1 \simeq 35\, {\rm M}_\odot$ and an O9.5V secondary with $M_2 \simeq 16\, {\rm M}_\odot$ on an eccentric (e = 0.51 ± 0.03) orbit. In addition tomore »having the largest variability amplitude amongst all known heartbeats stars, MACHO 80.7443.1718 is also one of the most massive heartbeat stars yet discovered. The B[e] supergiant has Balmer emission lines and permitted/forbidden metallic emission lines associated with a circumstellar disc. The disc rapidly dissipates at periastron that could indicate mass transfer to the secondary, but re-emerges immediately following periastron passage. MACHO 80.7443.1718 also shows tidally excited oscillations at the N = 25 and N = 41 orbital harmonics and has a rotational period of 4.4 d.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 31, 2022
  5. Diversity within species can have community‐level effects similar in magnitude to those of species diversity. Intraspecific diversity in producers and consumers has separately been shown to affect trophic interactions, yet we have little understanding of how variation at these two levels could simultaneously affect trophic interactions. Salt marshes dominated by Spartina alterniflora are an ideal system in which to ask this question as this plant exhibits substantial genetically based trait variation. Further, herbivores can have sizable impacts on Spartina, but the impact of herbivore trait variation is not well understood. We conducted an experiment in a Massachusetts salt marsh tomore »determine how herbivorous crab (Sesarma reticulatum) size diversity and Spartina genotypic diversity affect the plant community. Herbivore effects on plant traits varied by herbivore size, with large crabs generally having stronger impacts on plants. At times, the effect of small crabs on plant traits depended on plant genotypic diversity. The effects of crab size diversity (i.e., small and large crabs combined) were most often predicted by the independent effects of each size class, though there were synergistic effects on stem density, flowering stems, and mean stem height. Finally, we tested whether herbivore size or size diversity could have reciprocal effects on plant genotypic diversity. Small‐ and mixed‐crab treatments promoted plant genotypic richness, whereas large crabs did not. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific diversity at multiple trophic levels can have simultaneous and sometimes interactive effects on species interactions, highlighting the importance of variation within species for understanding species interactions and community processes.« less
  6. ABSTRACT Both the CO(2–1) and CO(1–0) lines are used to trace the mass of molecular gas in galaxies. Translating the molecular gas mass estimates between studies using different lines requires a good understanding of the behaviour of the CO(2–1)-to-CO(1–0) ratio, R21. We compare new, high-quality CO(1–0) data from the IRAM 30-m EMIR MultiLine Probe of the ISM Regulating Galaxy Evolution survey to the latest available CO(2–1) maps from HERA CO-Line Extragalactic Survey, Physics at High Angular resolution in Nearby Galaxies-ALMA, and a new IRAM 30-m M51 Large Program. This allows us to measure R21 across the full star-forming disc ofmore »nine nearby, massive, star-forming spiral galaxies at 27 arcsec (∼1–2 kpc) resolution. We find an average R21 = 0.64 ± 0.09 when we take the luminosity-weighted mean of all individual galaxies. This result is consistent with the mean ratio for disc galaxies that we derive from single-pointing measurements in the literature, $R_{\rm 21, lit}~=~0.59^{+0.18}_{-0.09}$. The ratio shows weak radial variations compared to the point-to-point scatter in the data. In six out of nine targets, the central enhancement in R21 with respect to the galaxy-wide mean is of order of ${\sim}10{-}20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$. We estimate an azimuthal scatter of ∼20 per cent in R21 at fixed galactocentric radius but this measurement is limited by our comparatively coarse resolution of 1.5 kpc. We find mild correlations between R21 and carbon monoxide (CO) brightness temperature, infrared (IR) intensity, 70–160 µm ratio, and IR-to-CO ratio. All correlations indicate that R21 increases with gas surface density, star formation rate surface density, and the interstellar radiation field.« less