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  1. Tracheobronchial tumors, while uncommon, are often malignant in adults. Surgical removal is the primary therapy for non-metastatic lung malignancies, but it is only possible in a small percentage of non-small-cell lung cancer patients and is limited by the number and location of tumors, as well as the patient’s overall health. This study proposes an alternative treatment: administering aerosolized chemotherapeutic particles via the pulmonary route using endotracheal catheters to target lung tumors. To improve delivery efficiency to the lesion, it is essential to understand local drug deposition and particle transport dynamics. This study uses an experimentally validated computational fluid particle dynamics (CFPD) model to simulate the transport and deposition of inhaled chemotherapeutic particles in a 3-dimensional tracheobronchial tree with 10 generations (G). Based on the particle release maps, targeted drug delivery strategies are proposed to enhance particle deposition at two lung tumor sites in G10. Results indicate that controlled drug release can improve particle delivery efficiencies at both targeted regions. The use of endotracheal catheters significantly affects particle delivery efficiencies in targeted tumors. The parametric analysis shows that using smaller catheters can deliver more than 74% of particles to targeted tumor sites, depending on the location of the tumor and themore »catheter diameter used, compared to less than 1% using conventional particle administration methods. Furthermore, the results indicate that particle release time has a significant impact on particle deposition under the same inhalation profile. This study serves as a first step in understanding the impact of catheter diameter on localized endotracheal injection for targeting tumors in small lung airways.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  2. Significant power consumption is one of the major challenges for current and future high-performance computing (HPC) systems. All the while, HPC systems generally remain power underutilized, making them a great candidate for applying power oversubscription to reclaim unused capacity. However, an oversubscribed HPC system may occasionally get overloaded. In this paper, we propose MPR (Market-based Power Reduction), a scalable market-based approach where users actively participate in reducing the HPC system’s power consumption to mitigate overloads. In MPR, HPC users bid to supply, in exchange for incentives, the resource reduction required for handling the overloads. Using several real-world trace-based simulations, we extensively evaluate MPR and show that, by participating in MPR, users always receive more rewards than the cost of performance loss. At the same time, the HPC manager enjoys orders of magnitude more resource gain than her incentive payoff to the users. We also demonstrate the real-world effectiveness of MPR on a prototype system.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  3. Deriving battery grade materials from natural sources is a key element to establishing sustainable energy storage technologies. In this work, we present the use of avocado peels as a sustainable source for conversion into hard carbon-based anodes for sodium ion batteries. The avocado peels are simply washed and dried then proceeded to a high temperature conversion step. Materials characterization reveals conversion of the avocado peels in high purity, highly porous hard carbon powders. When prepared as anode materials they show to the capability to reversibly store and release sodium ions. The hard carbon-based electrodes exhibit excellent cycling performance, namely, a reversible capacity of 352.55 mAh g−1at 0.05 A g−1, rate capability up to 86 mAh g−1at 3500 mA g−1, capacity retention of >90%, and 99.9% coulombic efficiencies after 500 cycles. Cyclic voltammetry studies indicated that the storage process was diffusion-limited, with diffusion coefficient of 8.62 × 10−8cm2s−1. This study demonstrates avocado derived hard carbon as a sustainable source that can provide excellent electrochemical and battery performance as anodes in sodium ion batteries.

  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 27, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 25, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 3, 2023
  7. Moisture is a known issue for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) manufacturing. During the process, in which a CFRP prepreg is carefully thawed, cut, stacked, and cured into a laminate, any bad moisture control can cause voids, affect the curing, and degrade the laminate. Recent studies of carbon nanofiber z-threaded CFRP (i.e., ZT-CFRP) prepreg and its laminates showed significant multifunctional improvements in the mechanical strengths, toughness, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity. The carbon nanofibers zig-zag thread among the carbon fibers in the through-thickness direction (i.e., z-direction) and mechanically interlock the fiber system together to form an effective 3D-fiber-network reinforced laminate. This paper presents a preliminary experimental study on the ZT-CFRP prepreg when facing the moisture exposure during the prepreg handling and lamination process. Both the ZT-CFRP and traditional CFRP prepregs, subjected to different humidity conditions, will be cut, and cured into laminate samples. The samples will be tested for their interlaminar shear strengths (ILSS) and hardness. Microscope pictures of the samples' fracture patterns will be compared for explaining the combined impact of the moistures and the carbon nanofiber z-threading strategy on the laminates' interlaminar shear strength and curing state.
  8. Well-dispersed and unaligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) infused liquid epoxy adhesive have been reported for significantly improving the adhesive-joint of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite laminates. However, it has not been determined in the literature if the alignment of MCNTs would provide an additional improvement than the randomly aligned case. In this study, various epoxy film adhesives embedded with 1wt% through-thickness aligned MCNTs, unaligned MCNTs, aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and unaligned CNFs were used for bonding CFRP laminates. These variants have been used to bond two CFRP laminates for the ASTM D5868-01 single lap test as well as a steel variant for the same bonding process. The average shear strengths of the samples bonded by the various film adhesives were compared with the samples bonded by the pure epoxy-films. Microscopic analysis has been used to examine the fracture surface after testing. It was also used to visualize how the film adhesives fail while experiencing shear. This study has investigated the effectiveness of infusing through-thickness directionally aligned vs. unaligned nanoparticles in an epoxy film adhesive for bonding CFRP laminates and steel plate. It also indicates the potential future research direction of using nanoparticles in advanced adhesive technologies.