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  1. Rotaru, Amelia-Elena (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Novel bacterial isolates with the capabilities of lignin depolymerization, catabolism, or both, could be pertinent to lignocellulosic biofuel applications. In this study, we aimed to identify anaerobic bacteria that could address the economic challenges faced with microbial-mediated biotechnologies, such as the need for aeration and mixing. Using a consortium seeded from temperate forest soil and enriched under anoxic conditions with organosolv lignin as the sole carbon source, we successfully isolated a novel bacterium, designated 159R. Based on the 16S rRNA gene, the isolate belongs to the genus Sodalis in the family Bruguierivoracaceae . Whole-genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 6.38 Mbp and a GC content of 55 mol%. To resolve the phylogenetic position of 159R, its phylogeny was reconstructed using (i) 16S rRNA genes of its closest relatives, (ii) multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 100 genes, (iii) 49 clusters of orthologous groups (COG) domains, and (iv) 400 conserved proteins. Isolate 159R was closely related to the deadwood associated Sodalis guild rather than the tsetse fly and other insect endosymbiont guilds. Estimated genome-sequence-based digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH), genome percentage of conserved proteins (POCP), and an alignment analysis between 159R and the Sodalis clade species further supported that isolate 159R wasmore »part of the Sodalis genus and a strain of Sodalis ligni . We proposed the name Sodalis ligni str. 159R (=DSM 110549 = ATCC TSD-177). IMPORTANCE Currently, in the paper industry, paper mill pulping relies on unsustainable and costly processes to remove lignin from lignocellulosic material. A greener approach is biopulping, which uses microbes and their enzymes to break down lignin. However, there are limitations to biopulping that prevent it from outcompeting other pulping processes, such as requiring constant aeration and mixing. Anaerobic bacteria are a promising alternative source for consolidated depolymerization of lignin and its conversion to valuable by-products. We presented Sodalis ligni str. 159R and its characteristics as another example of potential mechanisms that can be developed for lignocellulosic applications.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 29, 2023
  2. Cameron Thrash, J. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Hydrologic changes modify microbial community structure and ecosystem functions, especially in wetland systems. Here, we present 24 metagenomes from a coastal freshwater wetland experiment in which we manipulated hydrologic conditions and plant presence. These wetland soil metagenomes will deepen our understanding of how hydrology and vegetation influence microbial functional diversity.
  3. Thermoflexus hugenholtzii JAD2 T , the only cultured representative of the Chloroflexota order Thermoflexales , is abundant in Great Boiling Spring (GBS), NV, United States, and close relatives inhabit geothermal systems globally. However, no defined medium exists for T. hugenholtzii JAD2 T and no single carbon source is known to support its growth, leaving key knowledge gaps in its metabolism and nutritional needs. Here, we report comparative genomic analysis of the draft genome of T. hugenholtzii JAD2 T and eight closely related metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from geothermal sites in China, Japan, and the United States, representing “ Candidatus Thermoflexus japonica,” “ Candidatus Thermoflexus tengchongensis,” and “ Candidatus Thermoflexus sinensis.” Genomics was integrated with targeted exometabolomics and 13 C metabolic probing of T. hugenholtzii . The Thermoflexus genomes each code for complete central carbon metabolic pathways and an unusually high abundance and diversity of peptidases, particularly Metallo- and Serine peptidase families, along with ABC transporters for peptides and some amino acids. The T. hugenholtzii JAD2 T exometabolome provided evidence of extracellular proteolytic activity based on the accumulation of free amino acids. However, several neutral and polar amino acids appear not to be utilized, based on their accumulation in the medium andmore »the lack of annotated transporters. Adenine and adenosine were scavenged, and thymine and nicotinic acid were released, suggesting interdependency with other organisms in situ . Metabolic probing of T. hugenholtzii JAD2 T using 13 C-labeled compounds provided evidence of oxidation of glucose, pyruvate, cysteine, and citrate, and functioning glycolytic, tricarboxylic acid (TCA), and oxidative pentose-phosphate pathways (PPPs). However, differential use of position-specific 13 C-labeled compounds showed that glycolysis and the TCA cycle were uncoupled. Thus, despite the high abundance of Thermoflexus in sediments of some geothermal systems, they appear to be highly focused on chemoorganotrophy, particularly protein degradation, and may interact extensively with other microorganisms in situ .« less
  4. Abstract

    Our current knowledge of host–virus interactions in biofilms is limited to computational predictions based on laboratory experiments with a small number of cultured bacteria. However, natural biofilms are diverse and chiefly composed of uncultured bacteria and archaea with no viral infection patterns and lifestyle predictions described to date. Herein, we predict the first DNA sequence-based host–virus interactions in a natural biofilm. Using single-cell genomics and metagenomics applied to a hot spring mat of the Cone Pool in Mono County, California, we provide insights into virus–host range, lifestyle and distribution across different mat layers. Thirty-four out of 130 single cells contained at least one viral contig (26%), which, together with the metagenome-assembled genomes, resulted in detection of 59 viruses linked to 34 host species. Analysis of single-cell amplification kinetics revealed a lack of active viral replication on the single-cell level. These findings were further supported by mapping metagenomic reads from different mat layers to the obtained host–virus pairs, which indicated a low copy number of viral genomes compared to their hosts. Lastly, the metagenomic data revealed high layer specificity of viruses, suggesting limited diffusion to other mat layers. Taken together, these observations indicate that in low mobility environments with highmore »microbial abundance, lysogeny is the predominant viral lifestyle, in line with the previously proposed “Piggyback-the-Winner” theory.

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  5. null (Ed.)
    Abstract The reconstruction of bacterial and archaeal genomes from shotgun metagenomes has enabled insights into the ecology and evolution of environmental and host-associated microbiomes. Here we applied this approach to >10,000 metagenomes collected from diverse habitats covering all of Earth’s continents and oceans, including metagenomes from human and animal hosts, engineered environments, and natural and agricultural soils, to capture extant microbial, metabolic and functional potential. This comprehensive catalog includes 52,515 metagenome-assembled genomes representing 12,556 novel candidate species-level operational taxonomic units spanning 135 phyla. The catalog expands the known phylogenetic diversity of bacteria and archaea by 44% and is broadly available for streamlined comparative analyses, interactive exploration, metabolic modeling and bulk download. We demonstrate the utility of this collection for understanding secondary-metabolite biosynthetic potential and for resolving thousands of new host linkages to uncultivated viruses. This resource underscores the value of genome-centric approaches for revealing genomic properties of uncultivated microorganisms that affect ecosystem processes.
  6. ABSTRACT The complete genome sequence of the gammaproteobacterial isolate Serratia quinivorans 124R consists of 5 Mb over 2 scaffolds and a G+C content of 52.85%. Genes relating to aromatic metabolism reflect its isolation on organosolv lignin as a sole carbon source under anoxic conditions as well as the potential for lignin biorefinery applications.
  7. ABSTRACT For their food source, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis ants raise symbiotic fungus gardens that contain bacteria whose functions are poorly understood. Here, we report the genome sequences of eight bacteria isolated from these fungus gardens to better describe the ecology of these strains and their potential to produce secondary metabolites in this niche.
  8. Abstract

    Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic time-series data covering a 52-day period in the fall of 2016 provide an inventory of bacterial and archaeal community genes, transcripts, and taxonomy during an intense dinoflagellate bloom in Monterey Bay, CA, USA. The dataset comprises 84 metagenomes (0.8 terabases), 82 metatranscriptomes (1.1 terabases), and 88 16S rRNA amplicon libraries from samples collected on 41 dates. The dataset also includes 88 18S rRNA amplicon libraries, characterizing the taxonomy of the eukaryotic community during the bloom. Accompanying the sequence data are chemical and biological measurements associated with each sample. These datasets will facilitate studies of the structure and function of marine bacterial communities during episodic phytoplankton blooms.