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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2022
  2. 5G and open radio access networks (Open RANs) will result in vendor-neutral hardware deployment that will require additional diligence towards managing security risks. This new paradigm will allow the same network infrastructure to support virtual network slices for transmit different waveforms, such as 5G New Radio, LTE, WiFi, at different times. In this multi- vendor, multi-protocol/waveform setting, we propose an additional physical layer authentication method that detects a specific emitter through a technique called as RF fingerprinting. Our deep learning approach uses convolutional neural networks augmented with triplet loss, where examples of similar/dissimilar signal samples are shown to the classifiermore »over the training duration. We demonstrate the feasibility of RF fingerprinting base stations over the large-scale over-the-air experimental POWDER platform in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Using real world datasets, we show how our approach overcomes the challenges posed by changing channel conditions and protocol choices with 99.86% detection accuracy for different training and testing days.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 7, 2021
  3. Network densification through the deployment of WiFi access points (APs) is a promising solution towards achieving high connectivity rates required for emerging applications. A critical first step is to discover an AP before an active association between the client and the AP can be established. Legacy AP discovery procedures initiated by the client result in high latency in the order of a few 100 ms and waste spectrum, especially when clients need to frequently switch between multiple APs. We propose CSIscan that exploits the broadcast nature of WiFi channels by embedding discovery related information within an AP’s ongoing regular transmissions.more »The AP does this by intelligently distorting the transmitted OFDM frame by inducing perturbations in the preamble, and these injected ‘bits’ of information are detected via changes in the perceived channel state information (CSI). A deep learning framework allocates the optimal level of distortion on a per-subcarrier basis that keeps the resulting packet error rate to less than 1%. Existing clients perceive no changes in their ongoing communication, while potential new clients quickly obtain discovery information at the same time. We experimentally demonstrate that CSIscan reduces the overall WiFi latency from 150 ms to 10 ms and improves spectrum utilization with ∼ 72% reduction in the probe traffic. We show that CSIscan delivers up to 40 discovery information bits in the outgoing WiFi packet in an indoor environment.« less
  4. We propose a framework called AirID that identifies friendly/authorized UAVs using RF signals emitted by radios mounted on them through a technique called as RF finger- printing. Our main contribution is a method of intentionally inserting ‘signatures’ in the transmitted I/Q samples from each UAV, which are detected through a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) at the physical layer, without affecting the ongoing UAV data communication process. Specifically, AirID addresses the challenge of how to overcome the channel-induced perturbations in the transmitted signal that lowers identification accuracy. AirID is implemented using Ettus B200mini Software Defined Radios (SDRs) that serve asmore »both static ground UAV identifiers, as well as mounted on DJI Matrice M100 UAVs to perform the identification collaboratively as an aerial swarm. AirID tackles the well-known problem of low RF fingerprinting accuracy in ‘train on one day test on another day’ conditions as the aerial environment is constantly changing. Results reveal 98% identification accuracy for authorized UAVs, while maintaining a stable communication BER of 10^−4 for the evaluated cases.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 7, 2021