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  1. Abstract

    Transdermal drug delivery provides convenient and pain-free self-administration for personalized therapy. However, challenges remain in treating acute diseases mainly due to their inability to timely administrate therapeutics and precisely regulate pharmacokinetics within a short time window. Here we report the development of active acoustic metamaterials-driven transdermal drug delivery for rapid and on-demand acute disease management. Through the integration of active acoustic metamaterials, a compact therapeutic patch is integrated for penetration of skin stratum corneum and active percutaneous transport of therapeutics with precise control of dose and rate over time. Moreover, the patch device quantitatively regulates the dosage and release kinetics of therapeutics and achieves better delivery performance in vivo than through subcutaneous injection. As a proof-of-concept application, we show our method can reverse life-threatening acute allergic reactions in a female mouse model of anaphylaxis via a multi-burst delivery of epinephrine, showing better efficacy than a fixed dosage injection of epinephrine, which is the current gold standard ‘self-injectable epinephrine’ strategy. This innovative method may provide a promising means to manage acute disease for personalized medicine.

  2. Fully Homomorphic Encryption over the Torus (TFHE) allows arbitrary computations to happen directly on ciphertexts using homomorphic logic gates. However, each TFHE gate on state-of-the-art hardware platforms such as GPUs and FPGAs is extremely slow (> 0.2ms). Moreover, even the latest FPGA-based TFHE accelerator cannot achieve high energy efficiency, since it frequently invokes expensive double-precision floating point FFT and IFFT kernels. In this paper, we propose a fast and energy-efficient accelerator, MATCHA, to process TFHE gates. MATCHA supports aggressive bootstrapping key unrolling to accelerate TFHE gates without decryption errors by approximate multiplication-less integer FFTs and IFFTs, and a pipelined datapath. Compared to prior accelerators, MATCHA improves the TFHE gate processing throughput by 2.3x, and the throughput per Watt by 6.3x.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 10, 2023
  3. Ultra-fast & low-power superconductor single-flux-quantum (SFQ)-based CNN systolic accelerators are built to enhance the CNN inference throughput. However, shift-register (SHIFT)-based scratchpad memory (SPM) arrays prevent a SFQ CNN accelerator from exceeding 40% of its peak throughput, due to the lack of random access capability. This paper first documents our study of a variety of cryogenic memory technologies, including Vortex Transition Memory (VTM), Josephson-CMOS SRAM, MRAM, and Superconducting Nanowire Memory, during which we found that none of the aforementioned technologies made a SFQ CNN accelerator achieve high throughput, small area, and low power simultaneously. Second, we present a heterogeneous SPM architecture, SMART, composed of SHIFT arrays and a random access array to improve the inference throughput of a SFQ CNN systolic accelerator. Third, we propose a fast, low-power and dense pipelined random access CMOS-SFQ array by building SFQ passive-transmission-line-based H-Trees that connect CMOS sub-banks. Finally, we create an ILP-based compiler to deploy CNN models on SMART. Experimental results show that, with the same chip area overhead, compared to the latest SHIFT-based SFQ CNN accelerator, SMART improves the inference throughput by 3.9 × (2.2 ×), and reduces the inference energy by 86% (71%) when inferring a single image (a batch of images).
  4. Genomics is the foundation of precision medicine, global food security and virus surveillance. Exact-match is one of the most essential operations widely used in almost every step of genomics such as alignment, assembly, annotation, and compression. Modern genomics adopts Ferragina-Manzini Index (FMIndex) augmenting space-efficient Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) with additional data structures to permit ultra-fast exact-match operations. However, FM-Index is notorious for its poor spatial locality and random memory access pattern. Prior works create GPU-, FPGA-, ASIC- and even process-in-memory (PIM)based accelerators to boost FM-Index search throughput. Though they achieve the state-of-the-art FM-Index search throughput, the same as all prior conventional accelerators, FM-Index PIMs process only one DNA symbol after each DRAM row activation, thereby suffering from poor memory bandwidth utilization. In this paper, we propose a hardware accelerator, EXMA, to enhance FM-Index search throughput. We first create a novel EXMA table with a multi-task-learning (MTL)-based index to process multiple DNA symbols with each DRAM row activation. We then build an accelerator to search over an EXMA table. We propose 2-stage scheduling to increase the cache hit rate of our accelerator. We introduce dynamic page policy to improve the row buffer hit rate of DRAM main memory. We also present CHAINmore »compression to reduce the data structure size of EXMA tables. Compared to state-of-the-art FM-Index PIMs, EXMA improves search throughput by 4.9 ×, and enhances search throughput per Watt by 4.8×.« less
  5. Homomorphic encryption (HE) and garbled circuit (GC) provide the protection for users’ privacy. However, simply mixing the HE and GC in RNN models suffer from long inference latency due to slow activation functions. In this paper, we present a novel hybrid structure of HE and GC gated recurrent unit (GRU) network, , for low-latency secure inferences. replaces computationally expensive GC-based tanh with fast GC-based ReLU, and then quantizes sigmoid and ReLU to smaller bit-length to accelerate activations in a GRU. We evaluate with multiple GRU models trained on 4 public datasets. Experimental results show achieves top-notch accuracy and improves the secure inference latency by up to 138× over one of the state-of-the-art secure networks on the Penn Treebank dataset.
  6. Nanopore genome sequencing is the key to enabling personalized medicine, global food security, and virus surveillance. The state-of-the-art base-callers adopt deep neural networks (DNNs) to translate electrical signals generated by nanopore sequencers to digital DNA symbols. A DNN-based base-caller consumes 44.5% of total execution time of a nanopore sequencing pipeline. However, it is difficult to quantize a base-caller and build a power-efficient processing-in-memory (PIM) to run the quantized base-caller. Although conventional network quantization techniques reduce the computing overhead of a base-caller by replacing floating-point multiply-accumulations by cheaper fixed-point operations, it significantly increases the number of systematic errors that cannot be corrected by read votes. The power density of prior nonvolatile memory (NVM)-based PIMs has already exceeded memory thermal tolerance even with active heat sinks, because their power efficiency is severely limited by analog-to-digital converters (ADC). Finally, Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) decoding and read voting cost 53.7% of total execution time in a quantized base-caller, and thus became its new bottleneck. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm/architecture co-designed PIM, Helix, to power-efficiently and accurately accelerate nanopore base-calling. From algorithm perspective, we present systematic error aware training to minimize the number of systematic errors in a quantized base-caller. From architecturemore »perspective, we propose a low-power SOT-MRAM-based ADC array to process analog-to-digital conversion operations and improve power efficiency of prior DNN PIMs. Moreover, we revised a traditional NVM-based dot-product engine to accelerate CTC decoding operations, and create a SOT-MRAM binary comparator array to process read voting. Compared to state-of-the-art PIMs, Helix improves base-calling throughput by 6x, throughput per Watt by 11.9x and per mm2 by 7.5x without degrading base-calling accuracy.« less
  7. With PEG-like properties, such as hydrophilicity and stealth effect against protein absorption, oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG)-functionalized polypeptides have emerged as a new class of biomaterials alternative to PEG with polypeptide-like properties. Synthesis of this class of materials, however, has been demonstrated very challenging, as the synthesis and purification of OEG-functionalized N -carboxyanhydrides (OEG-NCAs) in high purity, which is critical for the success in polymerization, is tedious and often results in low yield. OEG-functionalized polypeptides are therefore only accessible to a few limited labs with expertise in this specialized NCA chemistry and materials. Here, we report the controlled synthesis of OEG-functionalized polypeptides in high yield directly from the OEG-functionalized amino acids via easy and reproducible polymerization of non-purified OEG-NCAs. The prepared amphiphilic block copolypeptides can self-assemble into narrowly dispersed nanoparticles in water, which show properties suitable for drug delivery applications.
  8. The emerging resistive random access memory (ReRAM) technology has been deemed as one of the most promising alternatives to DRAM in main memories, due to its better scalability, zero cell leakage and short read latency. The cross-point (CP) array enables ReRAM to obtain the theoretical minimum 4F^2 cell size by placing a cell at the cross-point of a word-line and a bit-line. However, ReRAM CP arrays suffer from large sneak current resulting in significant voltage drop that greatly prolongs the array RESET latency. Although prior works reduce the voltage drop in CP arrays, they either substantially increase the array peripheral overhead or cannot work well with wear leveling schemes. In this paper, we propose two array micro-architecture level techniques, dynamic RESET voltage regulation (DRVR) and partition RESET (PR), to mitigate voltage drop on both bit-lines and word-lines in ReRAM CP arrays. DRVR dynamically provides higher RESET voltage to the cells far from the write driver and thus encountering larger voltage drop on a bit-line, so that all cells on a bit-line share approximately the same latency during RESETs. PR decides how many and which cells to reset online to partition the CP array into multiple equivalent circuits with smaller word-linemore »resistance and voltage drop. Because DRVR and PR greatly reduce the array RESET latency, the ReRAM-based main memory lifetime under the worst case non-stop write traffic significantly decreases. To increase the CP array endurance, we further upgrade DRVR by providing lower RESET voltage to the cells suffering from less voltage drop on a word-line. Our experimental results show that, compared to the combination of prior voltage drop reduction techniques, our DRVR and PR improve the system performance by 11.7% and decrease the energy consumption by 46% averagely, while still maintaining >10-year main memory system lifetime.« less