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  1. Abstract Recently, several quantum benchmarking algorithms have been developed to characterize noisy quantum gates on today’s quantum devices. A fundamental issue in benchmarking is that not everything about quantum noise is learnable due to the existence of gauge freedom, leaving open the question what information is learnable and what is not, which is unclear even for a single CNOT gate. Here we give a precise characterization of the learnability of Pauli noise channels attached to Clifford gates using graph theoretical tools. Our results reveal the optimality of cycle benchmarking in the sense that it can extract all learnable information about Pauli noise. We experimentally demonstrate noise characterization of IBM’s CNOT gate up to 2 unlearnable degrees of freedom, for which we obtain bounds using physical constraints. In addition, we show that an attempt to extract unlearnable information by ignoring state preparation noise yields unphysical estimates, which is used to lower bound the state preparation noise. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. We propose an autonomous quantum error correction scheme using squeezed cat (SC) code against excitation loss in continuous-variable systems. Through reservoir engineering, we show that a structured dissipation can stabilize a two-component SC while autonomously correcting the errors. The implementation of such dissipation only requires low-order nonlinear couplings among three bosonic modes or between a bosonic mode and a qutrit. While our proposed scheme is device independent, it is readily implementable with current experimental platforms such as superconducting circuits and trapped-ion systems. Compared to the stabilized cat, the stabilized SC has a much lower dominant error rate and a significantly enhanced noise bias. Furthermore, the bias-preserving operations for the SC have much lower error rates. In combination, the stabilized SC leads to substantially better logical performance when concatenating with an outer discrete-variable code. The surface-SC scheme achieves more than one order of magnitude increase in the threshold ratio between the loss rate κ1 and the engineered dissipation rate κ2. Under a practical noise ratio κ1/κ2 = 10−3, the repetition-SC scheme can reach a 10−15 logical error rate even with a small mean excitation number of 4, which already suffices for practically useful quantum algorithms. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Quantum transducers convert quantum signals through hybrid interfaces of physical platforms in quantum networks. Modeled as quantum communication channels, performance of unidirectional quantum transducers can be measured by the quantum channel capacity. However, characterizing performance of quantum transducers used as bidirectional communication channels remains an open question. Here, we propose rate regions to characterize the performance of quantum transducers in the bidirectional scenario. Using this tool, we find that quantum transducers optimized for simultaneous bidirectional transduction can outperform strategies based on the standard protocol of time-shared unidirectional quantum transduction. Integrated over the frequency domain, we demonstrate that rate region can also characterize quantum transducers with finite bandwidth. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  4. A quantum internet is the holy grail of quantum information processing, enabling the deployment of a broad range of quantum technologies and protocols on a global scale. However, numerous challenges must be addressed before the quantum internet can become a reality. Perhaps the most crucial of these is the realization of a quantum repeater, an essential component in the long-distance transmission of quantum information. As the analog of a classical repeater, extender, or booster, the quantum repeater works to overcome loss and noise in the quantum channels constituting a quantum network. Here the conceptual frameworks and architectures for quantum repeaters, as well as the experimental progress toward their realization, are reviewed. Various near-term proposals to overcome the limits to the communication rates set by point-to-point quantum communication are also discussed. Finally, the manner in which quantum repeaters fit within the broader challenge of designing and implementing a quantum internet is overviewed. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. In this paper, we propose the Quantum Data Center (QDC), an architecture combining Quantum Random Access Memory (QRAM) and quantum networks. We give a precise definition of QDC, and discuss its possible realizations and extensions. We discuss applications of QDC in quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum sensing, with a primary focus on QDC for T-gate resources, QDC for multi-party private quantum communication, and QDC for distributed sensing through data compression. We show that QDC will provide efficient, private, and fast services as a future version of data centers. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  6. Cross-entropy (XE) measure is a widely used benchmark to demonstrate quantum computational advantage from sampling problems, such as random circuit sampling using superconducting qubits and boson sampling (BS). We present a heuristic classical algorithm that attains a better XE than the current BS experiments in a verifiable regime and is likely to attain a better XE score than the near-future BS experiments in a reasonable running time. The key idea behind the algorithm is that there exist distributions that correlate with the ideal BS probability distribution and that can be efficiently computed. The correlation and the computability of the distribution enable us to postselect heavy outcomes of the ideal probability distribution without computing the ideal probability, which essentially leads to a large XE. Our method scores a better XE than the recent Gaussian BS experiments when implemented at intermediate, verifiable system sizes. Much like current state-of-the-art experiments, we cannot verify that our spoofer works for quantum-advantage-size systems. However, we demonstrate that our approach works for much larger system sizes in fermion sampling, where we can efficiently compute output probabilities. Finally, we provide analytic evidence that the classical algorithm is likely to spoof noisy BS efficiently. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  7. Quantum capacity, as the key figure of merit for a given quantum channel, upper bounds the channel's ability in transmitting quantum information. Identifying different types of channels, evaluating the corresponding quantum capacity, and finding the capacity-approaching coding scheme are the major tasks in quantum communication theory. Quantum channel in discrete variables has been discussed enormously based on various error models, while error model in the continuous variable channel has been less studied due to the infinite dimensional problem. In this paper, we investigate a general continuous variable quantum erasure channel. By defining an effective subspace of the continuous variable system, we find a continuous variable random coding model. We then derive the quantum capacity of the continuous variable erasure channel in the framework of decoupling theory. The discussion in this paper fills the gap of a quantum erasure channel in continuous variable setting and sheds light on the understanding of other types of continuous variable quantum channels. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 6, 2024
  8. Abstract High-performance quantum transducers, which faithfully convert quantum information between disparate physical carriers, are essential in quantum science and technology. Different figures of merit, including efficiency, bandwidth, and added noise, are typically used to characterize the transducers’ ability to transfer quantum information. Here we utilize quantum capacity, the highest achievable qubit communication rate through a channel, to define a single metric that unifies various criteria of a desirable transducer. Using the continuous-time quantum capacities of bosonic pure-loss channels as benchmarks, we investigate the optimal designs of generic quantum transduction schemes implemented by transmitting external signals through a coupled bosonic chain. With physical constraints on the maximal coupling rate $${g}_{\max }$$ g max , the highest continuous-time quantum capacity $${Q}^{\max }\approx 31.4{g}_{\max }$$ Q max ≈ 31.4 g max is achieved by transducers with a maximally flat conversion frequency response, analogous to Butterworth electric filters. We further investigate the effect of thermal noise on the performance of transducers. 
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