skip to main content


Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Jiang, Linhua"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    We study the environment of thez= 6.33 ultraluminous quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 (J0100) to understand its association with large-scale structure. Theoretical models propose high-redshift quasars as markers of galaxy overdensities residing in the most massive dark matter halos (DMHs) in the early Universe. J0100 is an ultraluminous quasar with the most massive black hole known atz≳ 6, suggesting a high likelihood of residing in a massive DMH. We present wide-field (∼522 arcmin2) imaging in ther,i, andzbands from the Large Binocular Cameras on the Large Binocular Telescope, withY-andJ-band imaging from the Wide-field Infrared Camera on the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, centered on J0100. Applying color selections, we identify 23 objects asi-dropout Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates in the J0100 field. We use the deep photometric catalog in the 1.27 deg2COSMOS field to calculate the density of LBGs in a blank field, and to estimate the selection completeness and purity. The observed surface density of LBG candidates in the J0100 field corresponds to a galaxy overdensity ofδ= 4 (at 8.4σ). This large-scale overdensity suggests that the ∼22 arcmin2overdensity found by Kashino et al. using JWST data extends out to much larger scales. We calculate the angular autocorrelation function of the candidates and find a positive correlation on ≲10′ scales as well as evidence of asymmetries in their spatial distribution, further suggesting the direct detection of large-scale structure in the field of the ultraluminous quasar J0100.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    We characterize the multiphase circumgalactic medium (CGM) and galaxy properties atz= 6.0–6.5 in four quasar fields from the James Webb Space Telescope A SPectroscopic survey of biased halos In the Reionization Era (ASPIRE) program. We use the Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectra of quasar J0305–3150 to identify one new metal absorber atz= 6.2713 with multiple transitions (Oi, Mgii, Feii,and Cii). They are combined with the published absorbing systems in Davies et al. at the same redshift range to form a sample of nine metal absorbers atz= 6.03–6.49. We identify eight galaxies within 1000 km s−1and 350 kpc around the absorbing gas from the ASPIRE spectroscopic data, with their redshifts secured by [Oiii] (λλ4959, 5007) doublets and Hβemission lines. Our spectral energy distribution fitting indicates that the absorbing galaxies have stellar masses ranging from 107.2to 108.8Mand metallicity between 0.02 and 0.4 solar. Notably, thez= 6.2713 system in the J0305–3150 field resides in a galaxy overdensity region, which contains two (tentatively) merging galaxies within 350 kpc and seven galaxies within 1 Mpc. We measure the relative abundances ofαelements to iron ([α/Fe]) and find that the CGM gas in the most overdense region exhibits a lower [α/Fe] ratio. Our modeling of the galaxy’s chemical abundance favors a top-heavy stellar initial mass function and hints that we may be witnessing the contribution of the first generation of Population III stars to the CGM at the end of the reionization epoch.

     
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 27, 2025
  3. Abstract

    The formation of the first supermassive black holes is expected to have occurred in some most pronounced matter and galaxy overdensities in the early universe. We have conducted a submillimeter wavelength continuum survey of 54z∼ 6 quasars using the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometre Array-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to study the environments aroundz∼ 6 quasars. We identified 170 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with above 3.5σdetections in 450 or 850μm maps. Their far-IR luminosities are (2.2–6.4) × 1012L, and their star formation rates are ∼400–1200Myr−1. We also calculated the SMGs’ differential and cumulative number counts in a combined area of ∼620 arcmin2. To a 4σdetection (at ∼5.5 mJy), SMGs’ overdensity is0.680.19+0.21(±0.19), exceeding the blank-field source counts by a factor of 1.68. We find that 13/54 quasars show overdensities (at ∼5.5 mJy) ofδSMG∼ 1.5–5.4. The combined area of these 13 quasars exceeds the blank-field counts with the overdensity to 5.5 mJy ofδSMG2.460.55+0.64(±0.25) in the regions of ∼150 arcmin2. However, the excess is insignificant on the bright end (e.g., 7.5 mJy). We also compare results with previous environmental studies of Lyαemitters and Lyman break galaxies on a similar scale. Our survey presents the first systematic study of the environment of quasars atz∼ 6. The newly discovered SMGs provide essential candidates for follow-up spectroscopic observations to test whether they reside in the same large-scale structures as the quasars and search for protoclusters at an early epoch.

     
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    We present the astrometric calibration of the Beijing–Arizona Sky Survey (BASS). The BASS astrometry was tied to the International Celestial Reference Frame via the Gaia Data Release 2 reference catalog. For effects that were stable throughout the BASS observations, including differential chromatic refraction and the low charge transfer efficiency of the CCD, we corrected for these effects at the raw image coordinates. Fourth-order polynomial intermediate longitudinal and latitudinal corrections were used to remove optical distortions. The comparison with the Gaia catalog shows that the systematic errors, depending on color or magnitude, are less than 2 milliarcseconds (mas). The position systematic error is estimated to be about −0.01 ± 0.7 mas in the region between 30° and 60° of decl. and up to −0.07 ± 0.9 mas in the region north of decl. 60°.

     
    more » « less
  5. ABSTRACT We study the demographics of z ∼ 6 broad-line quasars in the black hole (BH) mass–luminosity plane using a sample of more than 100 quasars at 5.7 < z < 6.5. These quasars have well-quantified selection functions and nearly one-third of them also have virial BH masses estimated from near-IR spectroscopy. We use forward modelling of parametrized intrinsic distributions of BH masses and Eddington ratios, and account for the sample flux limits and measurement uncertainties of the BH masses and luminosities. We find significant differences between the intrinsic and observed distributions of the quantities due to measurement uncertainties and sample flux limits. There is also marginal evidence that the virial BH masses are susceptible to a positive luminosity-dependent bias (BH mass is overestimated when luminosity is above the average), and that the mean Eddington ratio increases with BH mass. Our models provide reliable constraints on the z ∼ 6 BH mass function at $M_{\rm BH}\gt 10^{8.5}\, M_\odot$, with a median 1σ uncertainty of ∼0.5 dex in abundance. The intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution of $M_{\rm BH}\gt 10^{8.5}\, M_\odot$ quasars can be approximated by a mass-dependent Schechter model, with a broad peak around log (Lbol/LEdd) ∼ −0.9. We also find that, at 4.5 ≲ z ≲ 6, the number densities of more massive BHs tend to decline more rapidly with increasing redshift, contrary to the trend at 2.5 ≲ z ≲ 4.5 reported previously. 
    more » « less
  6. Abstract We present a well-designed sample of more than 1000 type 1 quasars at 3.5 < z < 5 and derive UV quasar luminosity functions (QLFs) in this redshift range. These quasars were selected using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data in the Stripe 82 and overlap regions with repeat imaging observations that are about 1 mag fainter than the SDSS single-epoch data. The follow-up spectroscopic observations were conducted by the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) as one of the BOSS ancillary programs. Reaching i ∼ 21.5 mag, our sample bridges previous samples from brighter and deeper surveys. We use a 1/ V a method to derive binned QLFs at 3.6 < z < 4.0, 4.0 < z < 4.5, and 4.5 < z < 4.9 and then use a double power-law model to parameterize the QLFs. We also combine our data with literature QLFs to better constrain the QLFs across a much wider luminosity baseline. The faint- and bright-end slopes of the QLFs in this redshift range are around −1.7 and −3.7, respectively, with uncertainties from 0.2 to 0.3 to >0.5. The evolution of the QLFs from z ∼ 5 to 3.5 can be described by a pure density evolution model (∝10 kz ) with a parameter k similar to that at 5 < z < 7, suggesting a nearly uniform evolution of the quasar density at z = 3.5–7. 
    more » « less
  7. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) sub-kiloparsec- to kiloparsec-scale resolution observations of the [C II], CO (9–8), and OH+(11–01) lines along with their dust continuum emission toward the far-infrared (FIR) luminous quasar SDSS J231038.88+185519.7 atz = 6.0031, to study the interstellar medium distribution, the gas kinematics, and the quasar-host system dynamics. We decompose the intensity maps of the [C II] and CO (9–8) lines and the dust continuum with two-dimensional elliptical Sérsic models. The [C II] brightness follows a flat distribution with a Sérsic index of 0.59. The CO (9–8) line and the dust continuum can be fit with an unresolved nuclear component and an extended Sérsic component with a Sérsic index of ∼1, which may correspond to the emission from an active galactic nucleus dusty molecular torus and a quasar host galaxy, respectively. The different [C II] spatial distribution may be due to the effect of the high dust opacity, which increases the FIR background radiation on the [C II] line, especially in the galaxy center, significantly suppressing the [C II] emission profile. The dust temperature drops with distance from the center. The effective radius of the dust continuum is smaller than that of the line emission and the dust mass surface density, but is consistent with that of the star formation rate surface density. This may indicate that the dust emission is a less robust tracer of the dust and gas distribution but is a decent tracer of the obscured star formation activity. The OH+(11–01) line shows a P-Cygni profile with an absorption at ∼–400 km s−1, which may indicate an outflow with a neutral gas mass of (6.2 ± 1.2)×108Malong the line of sight. We employed a three-dimensional tilted ring model to fit the [C II] and CO (9–8) data cubes. The two lines are both rotation dominated and trace identical disk geometries and gas motions. This suggest that the [C II] and CO (9–8) gas are coplanar and corotating in this quasar host galaxy. The consistent circular velocities measured with [C II] and CO (9–8) lines indicate that these two lines trace a similar gravitational potential. We decompose the circular rotation curve measured from the kinematic model fit to the [C II] line into four matter components (black hole, stars, gas, and dark matter). The quasar-starburst system is dominated by baryonic matter inside the central few kiloparsecs. We constrain the black hole mass to be 2.97+0.51-0.77 × 109M; this is the first time that the dynamical mass of a black hole has been measured atz ∼ 6. This mass is consistent with that determined using the scaling relations from quasar emission lines. A massive stellar component (on the order of 109M) may have already existed when the Universe was only ∼0.93 Gyr old. The relations between the black hole mass and the baryonic mass of this quasar indicate that the central supermassive black hole may have formed before its host galaxy.

     
    more » « less
  8. Abstract

    We present the final data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Reverberation Mapping (RM) project, a precursor to the SDSS-V Black Hole Mapper RM program. This data set includes 11 yr photometric and 7 yr spectroscopic light curves for 849 broad-line quasars over a redshift range of 0.1 <z< 4.5 and a luminosity range ofLbol= 1044−47.5erg s−1, along with spectral and variability measurements. We report 23, 81, 125, and 110 RM lags (relative to optical continuum variability) for broad Hα, Hβ, Mgii, and Civusing the SDSS-RM sample, spanning much of the luminosity and redshift ranges of the sample. Using 30 low-redshift RM active galactic nuclei with dynamical-modeling black hole masses, we derive a new estimate of the average virial factor oflogf=0.62±0.07for the line dispersion measured from the rms spectrum. The intrinsic scatter of individual virial factors is 0.31 ± 0.07 dex, indicating a factor of 2 systematic uncertainty in RM black hole masses. Our lag measurements reveal significantRLrelations for Hβand Mgiiat high redshift, consistent with the latest measurements based on heterogeneous samples. While we are unable to robustly constrain the slope of theRLrelation for Civgiven the limited dynamic range in luminosity, we found substantially larger scatter in Civlags at fixedL1350. Using the SDSS-RM lag sample, we derive improved single-epoch (SE) mass recipes for Hβ, Mgii, and Civ, which are consistent with their respective RM masses as well as between the SE recipes from two different lines, over the luminosity range probed by our sample. The new Hβand Mgiirecipes are approximately unbiased estimators at given RM masses, but there are systematic biases in the Civrecipe. The intrinsic scatter of SE masses around RM masses is ∼0.45 dex for Hβand Mgii, increasing to ∼0.58 dex for Civ.

     
    more » « less
  9. Abstract We report deep Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the optically ultraluminous and radio-quiet quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 (hereafter J0100+2802) at redshift z = 6.3. We detected the radio continuum emission at 1.5 GHz, 6 GHz, and 10 GHz. This leads to a radio power-law spectral index of α = −0.52 ± 0.18 ( S ∝ ν α ). The radio source is unresolved in all VLA bands with an upper limit to the size of 0.″2 (i.e., ∼1.1 kpc) at 10 GHz. We find variability in the flux density (increase by ∼33%) and the spectral index (steepened) between observations in 2016 and 2017. We also find that the VLA 1.5 GHz flux density observed in the same year is 1.5 times that detected with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) in 2016 at the same frequency. This difference suggests that half of the radio emission from J0100+2802 comes from a compact core within 40 pc, and the rest comes from the surrounding few-kiloparsec area, which is diffuse and resolved out in the VLBA observations. The diffuse emission is 4 times brighter than what would be expected if driven by star formation. We conclude that the central active galactic nucleus is the dominant power engine of the radio emission in J0100+2802. 
    more » « less