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  1. Density estimation is one of the fundamental problems in both statistics and machine learning. In this study, we propose Roundtrip, a computational framework for general-purpose density estimation based on deep generative neural networks. Roundtrip retains the generative power of deep generative models, such as generative adversarial networks (GANs) while it also provides estimates of density values, thus supporting both data generation and density estimation. Unlike previous neural density estimators that put stringent conditions on the transformation from the latent space to the data space, Roundtrip enables the use of much more general mappings where target density is modeled by learningmore »a manifold induced from a base density (e.g., Gaussian distribution). Roundtrip provides a statistical framework for GAN models where an explicit evaluation of density values is feasible. In numerical experiments, Roundtrip exceeds state-of-the-art performance in a diverse range of density estimation tasks.« less
  2. Haliloglu, Turkan (Ed.)
    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) provides 3D visualization of subcellular components in the near-native state and at sub-molecular resolutions in single cells, demonstrating an increasingly important role in structural biology in situ . However, systematic recognition and recovery of macromolecular structures in cryo-ET data remain challenging as a result of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), small sizes of macromolecules, and high complexity of the cellular environment. Subtomogram structural classification is an essential step for such task. Although acquisition of large amounts of subtomograms is no longer an obstacle due to advances in automation of data collection, obtaining the same number of structural labelsmore »is both computation and labor intensive. On the other hand, existing deep learning based supervised classification approaches are highly demanding on labeled data and have limited ability to learn about new structures rapidly from data containing very few labels of such new structures. In this work, we propose a novel approach for subtomogram classification based on few-shot learning. With our approach, classification of unseen structures in the training data can be conducted given few labeled samples in test data through instance embedding. Experiments were performed on both simulated and real datasets. Our experimental results show that we can make inference on new structures given only five labeled samples for each class with a competitive accuracy (> 0.86 on the simulated dataset with SNR = 0.1), or even one sample with an accuracy of 0.7644. The results on real datasets are also promising with accuracy > 0.9 on both conditions and even up to 1 on one of the real datasets. Our approach achieves significant improvement compared with the baseline method and has strong capabilities of generalizing to other cellular components.« less
  3. Elofsson, Arne (Ed.)
    Abstract Motivation Cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET) visualizes structure and spatial organization of macromolecules and their interactions with other subcellular components inside single cells in the close-to-native state at submolecular resolution. Such information is critical for the accurate understanding of cellular processes. However, subtomogram classification remains one of the major challenges for the systematic recognition and recovery of the macromolecule structures in cryo-ET because of imaging limits and data quantity. Recently, deep learning has significantly improved the throughput and accuracy of large-scale subtomogram classification. However, often it is difficult to get enough high-quality annotated subtomogram data for supervised training due to themore »enormous expense of labeling. To tackle this problem, it is beneficial to utilize another already annotated dataset to assist the training process. However, due to the discrepancy of image intensity distribution between source domain and target domain, the model trained on subtomograms in source domain may perform poorly in predicting subtomogram classes in the target domain. Results In this article, we adapt a few shot domain adaptation method for deep learning-based cross-domain subtomogram classification. The essential idea of our method consists of two parts: (i) take full advantage of the distribution of plentiful unlabeled target domain data, and (ii) exploit the correlation between the whole source domain dataset and few labeled target domain data. Experiments conducted on simulated and real datasets show that our method achieves significant improvement on cross domain subtomogram classification compared with baseline methods. Availability and implementation Software is available online https://github.com/xulabs/aitom. Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.« less