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  1. Roughly 85% of mammalian herbivore species in southern Kenya were replaced by smaller, more adaptable species at some time between 400,000 years ago (400ka) and 500 ka. While this major taxonomic turnover has been attributed to a shift to more a more arid and variable climate and tectonic activity, we wondered if a particularly abrupt shift, a “tipping point,” in climate at some time between 400 and 500 ka was the cause. We analyzed the highest resolution paleoclimate record available in East Africa, Lake Malawi drill core MAL05-1B, for organic geochemical proxies, including branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) and leaf wax deuterium isotopic records to develop the temperature and precipitation history, respectively, between 600 and 200 ka. Results show an abrupt temperature increase of ~6°C occurring in less than 3000 years during Glacial Termination V, which is the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 to MIS 11 transition at ~430 ka. Surprisingly, even more intense warming occurred during Glacial Termination VI around 510 ka. Notably, these deglacial warmings coincide with enriched leaf wax deuterium isotopic values suggesting a shift to more arid conditions in interglacials MIS 13 and 11 than in glacials MIS 14 and 12, respectively. These changes from cold/wet glacials to warm/dry interglacials contrast with the cool/dry pattern of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in East Africa that transitioned to a warm/wet Holocene. We propose that the major warming and drying during Termination V in the Malawi basin represents a significant abrupt change that impacted much of eastern Africa around 430 ka and was a likely driver of the major faunal turnover noted in the region. 
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    Using the newly introduced ``occupation kernels,'' the present manuscript develops an approach to dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) that treats continuous time dynamics, without discretization, through the Liouville operator. The technical and theoretical differences between Koopman based DMD for discrete time systems and Liouville based DMD for continuous time systems are highlighted, which includes an examination of these operators over several reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. 
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    This paper introduces robustness verification for semantic segmentation neural networks (in short, semantic segmentation networks [SSNs]), building on and extending recent approaches for robustness verification of image classification neural networks. Despite recent progress in developing verification methods for specifications such as local adversarial robustness in deep neural networks (DNNs) in terms of scalability, precision, and applicability to different network architectures, layers, and activation functions, robustness verification of semantic segmentation has not yet been considered. We address this limitation by developing and applying new robustness analysis methods for several segmentation neural network architectures, specifically by addressing reachability analysis of up-sampling layers, such as transposed convolution and dilated convolution. We consider several definitions of robustness for segmentation, such as the percentage of pixels in the output that can be proven robust under different adversarial perturbations, and a robust variant of intersection-over-union (IoU), the typical performance evaluation measure for segmentation tasks. Our approach is based on a new relaxed reachability method, allowing users to select the percentage of a number of linear programming problems (LPs) to solve when constructing the reachable set, through a relaxation factor percentage. The approach is implemented within NNV, then applied and evaluated on segmentation datasets, such as a multi-digit variant of MNIST known as M2NIST. Thorough experiments show that by using transposed convolution for up-sampling and average-pooling for down-sampling, combined with minimizing the number of ReLU layers in the SSNs, we can obtain SSNs with not only high accuracy (IoU), but also that are more robust to adversarial attacks and amenable to verification. Additionally, using our new relaxed reachability method, we can significantly reduce the verification time for neural networks whose ReLU layers dominate the total analysis time, even in classification tasks. 
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  5. Tellurium (Te) stable isotope measurements have the potential to serve as tracers of Te mobility and redox conditions in modern and ancient environments. Here, we present a method to measure Te isotope ratios by MC-ICP-MS utilizing a hydride generation system to efficiently deliver Te to the plasma, in combination with a 120 Te– 124 Te double spike. This approach allows for precise δ 130 Te/ 126 Te (2 σ : 0.09‰) measurements while using less than 8.75 ng of natural Te. Although hydride generation methods usually produce higher sensitivity than more conventional methods, for Te, the sensitivity is similar, on our instrument, to that achieved using a desolvating nebulizer. Nonetheless, hydride generation has an advantageous ability to exclude interfering elements such as Ba and allow analysis of samples without chemical separation of Te in some cases. We also demonstrate successfully a modified ion exchange procedure to separate various matrix components and isobaric interferences from Te in natural sediments. Analyses of multiple digestions of USGS standard reference materials, mine tailings, ancient sediments, and soils utilizing this approach show the largest spread in terrestrial Te isotopic composition to date (δ 130 Te/ 126 Te ∼ 1.21‰) and a lack of detectable mass-independent fractionation. 
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  6. ABSTRACT

    Classical novae are shock-powered multiwavelength transients triggered by a thermonuclear runaway on an accreting white dwarf. V1674 Her is the fastest nova ever recorded (time to declined by two magnitudes is t2 = 1.1 d) that challenges our understanding of shock formation in novae. We investigate the physical mechanisms behind nova emission from GeV γ-rays to cm-band radio using coordinated Fermi-LAT, NuSTAR, Swift, and VLA observations supported by optical photometry. Fermi-LAT detected short-lived (18 h) 0.1–100 GeV emission from V1674 Her that appeared 6 h after the eruption began; this was at a level of (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10−6 photons cm−2 s−1. Eleven days later, simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift X-ray observations revealed optically thin thermal plasma shock-heated to kTshock = 4 keV. The lack of a detectable 6.7 keV Fe Kα emission suggests super-solar CNO abundances. The radio emission from V1674 Her was consistent with thermal emission at early times and synchrotron at late times. The radio spectrum steeply rising with frequency may be a result of either free-free absorption of synchrotron and thermal emission by unshocked outer regions of the nova shell or the Razin–Tsytovich effect attenuating synchrotron emission in dense plasma. The development of the shock inside the ejecta is unaffected by the extraordinarily rapid evolution and the intermediate polar host of this nova.

     
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  8. Abstract

    We present 294 pulsars found in GeV data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Another 33 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) discovered in deep radio searches of LAT sources will likely reveal pulsations once phase-connected rotation ephemerides are achieved. A further dozen optical and/or X-ray binary systems colocated with LAT sources also likely harbor gamma-ray MSPs. This catalog thus reports roughly 340 gamma-ray pulsars and candidates, 10% of all known pulsars, compared to ≤11 known before Fermi. Half of the gamma-ray pulsars are young. Of these, the half that are undetected in radio have a broader Galactic latitude distribution than the young radio-loud pulsars. The others are MSPs, with six undetected in radio. Overall, ≥236 are bright enough above 50 MeV to fit the pulse profile, the energy spectrum, or both. For the common two-peaked profiles, the gamma-ray peak closest to the magnetic pole crossing generally has a softer spectrum. The spectral energy distributions tend to narrow as the spindown powerĖdecreases to its observed minimum near 1033erg s−1, approaching the shape for synchrotron radiation from monoenergetic electrons. We calculate gamma-ray luminosities when distances are available. Our all-sky gamma-ray sensitivity map is useful for population syntheses. The electronic catalog version provides gamma-ray pulsar ephemerides, properties, and fit results to guide and be compared with modeling results.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 27, 2024