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  1. Gilbert, Seth (Ed.)
    Byzantine consensus is a classical problem in distributed computing. Each node in a synchronous system starts with a binary input. The goal is to reach agreement in the presence of Byzantine faulty nodes. We consider the setting where communication between nodes is modelled via an undirected communication graph. In the classical point-to-point communication model all messages sent on an edge are private between the two endpoints of the edge. This allows a faulty node to equivocate, i.e., lie differently to its different neighbors. Different models have been proposed in the literature that weaken equivocation. In the local broadcast model, every message transmitted by a node is received identically and correctly by all of its neighbors. In the hypergraph model, every message transmitted by a node on a hyperedge is received identically and correctly by all nodes on the hyperedge. Tight network conditions are known for each of the three cases. We introduce a more general model that encompasses all three of these models. In the local multicast model, each node u has one or more local multicast channels. Each channel consists of multiple neighbors of u in the communication graph. When node u sends a message on a channel, itmore »is received identically by all of its neighbors on the channel. For this model, we identify tight network conditions for consensus. We observe how the local multicast model reduces to each of the three models above under specific conditions. In each of the three cases, we relate our network condition to the corresponding known tight conditions. The local multicast model also encompasses other practical network models of interest that have not been explored previously, as elaborated in the paper.« less
  2. This paper considers the Byzantine consensus problem for nodes with binary inputs. The nodes are interconnected by a network represented as an undirected graph, and the system is assumed to be synchronous. Under the classical point-to-point communication model, it is well-known that the following two conditions are both necessary and sufficient to achieve Byzantine consensus among n nodes in the presence of up to ƒ Byzantine faulty nodes: n & 3 #8805; 3 ≥ ƒ+ 1 and vertex connectivity at least 2 ƒ + 1. In the classical point-to-point communication model, it is possible for a faulty node to equivocate, i.e., transmit conflicting information to different neighbors. Such equivocation is possible because messages sent by a node to one of its neighbors are not overheard by other neighbors. This paper considers the local broadcast model. In contrast to the point-to-point communication model, in the local broadcast model, messages sent by a node are received identically by all of its neighbors. Thus, under the local broadcast model, attempts by a node to send conflicting information can be detected by its neighbors. Under this model, we show that the following two conditions are both necessary and sufficient for Byzantine consensus: vertex connectivitymore »at least ⌋ 3 fƒ / 2 ⌊ + 1 and minimum node degree at least 2 ƒ. Observe that the local broadcast model results in a lower requirement for connectivity and the number of nodes n, as compared to the point-to-point communication model. We extend the above results to a hybrid model that allows some of the Byzantine faulty nodes to equivocate. The hybrid model bridges the gap between the point-to-point and local broadcast models, and helps to precisely characterize the trade-off between equivocation and network requirements.« less
  3. We consider Byzantine consensus in a synchronous system where nodes are connected by a network modeled as a directed graph, i.e., communication links between neighboring nodes are not necessarily bi-directional. The directed graph model is motivated by wireless networks wherein asymmetric communication links can occur. In the classical point-to-point communication model, a message sent on a communication link is private between the two nodes on the link. This allows a Byzantine faulty node to equivocate, i.e., send inconsistent information to its neighbors. This paper considers the local broadcast model of communication, wherein transmission by a node is received identically by all of its outgoing neighbors, effectively depriving the faulty nodes of the ability to equivocate. Prior work has obtained sufficient and necessary conditions on undirected graphs to be able to achieve Byzantine consensus under the local broadcast model. In this paper, we obtain tight conditions on directed graphs to be able to achieve Byzantine consensus with binary inputs under the local broadcast model. The results obtained in the paper provide insights into the trade-off between directionality of communication links and the ability to achieve consensus.