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  1. Abstract

    In this work, we consider a type of magnetic memory where information is encoded into the mutual arrangement of magnets. The device is an active ring circuit comprising magnetic and electric parts connected in series. The electric part includes a broadband amplifier, phase shifters, and attenuators. The magnetic part is a mesh of magnonic waveguides with magnets placed on the waveguide junctions. There are amplitude and phase conditions for auto-oscillations to occur in the active ring circuit. The frequency(s) of the auto-oscillation and spin wave propagation path(s) in the magnetic part depends on the mutual arrangement of magnets in the mesh. The propagation path is detected with a set of power sensors. The correlation between circuit parameters and spin wave path is the basis of memory operation. The combination of input/output switches connecting electric and magnetic parts and electric phase shifters constitute the memory address. The output of the power sensors is the memory state. We present experimental data on the proof-of-the-concept experiments on the prototype with three magnets placed on top of a single-crystal yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe2(FeO4)3(YIG) film. There are three selected places for the magnets to be placed. There is a variety of spin wave propagation paths for each configuration of magnets. The results demonstrate a robust operation with an On/Off ratio for path detection exceeding 35 dB at room temperature. The number of possible magnet arrangements scales factorially with the size of the magnetic part. The number of possible paths per one configuration scales factorial as well. It makes it possible to drastically increase the data storage density compared to conventional memory devices. Magnonic combinatorial memory with an array of 100 × 100 magnets can store all information generated by humankind. Physical limits and constraints are also discussed.

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  2. Magnonic holographic memory is a type of memory that uses spin waves for magnetic bit read-in and read-out. Its operation is based on the interaction between magnets and propagating spin waves where the phase and the amplitude of the spin wave are sensitive to the magnetic field produced by the magnet. Memory states 0 and 1 are associated with the presence/absence of the magnet in a specific location. In this work, we present experimental data showing the feasibility of magnetic bit location using spin waves. The testbed consists of four micro-antennas covered by Y 3 Fe 2 (FeO 4 ) 3 yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film. A constant in-plane bias magnetic field is provided by NdFeB permanent magnet. The magnetic bit is made of strips of magnetic steel to maximize interaction with propagating spin waves. In the first set of experiments, the position of the bit was concluded by the change produced in the transmittance between two antennas. The minima appear at different frequencies and show different depths for different positions of the bit. In the second set of experiments, two input spin waves were generated, where the phase difference between the waves is controlled by the phase shifter. The minima in the transmitted spectra appear at different phases for different positions of magnetic bit. The utilization of the structured bit enhances its interaction with propagating spin waves and improves recognition fidelity compared to a regular-shaped bit. The recognition accuracy is further improved by exploiting spin wave interference. The depth of the transmission minima corresponding to different magnet positions may exceed 30 dB. All experiments are accomplished at room temperature. Overall, the presented data demonstrate the practical feasibility of using spin waves for magnetic bit red-out. The practical challenges are also discussed. 
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  3. The development of magnetic logic devices dictates a need for a novel type of interconnect for magnetic signal transmission. Fast signal damping is one of the problems which drastically differs from conventional electric technology. Here, we describe a magnetic interconnect based on a composite multiferroic comprising piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials. Internal signal amplification is the main reason for using multiferroic material, where a portion of energy can be transferred from electric to magnetic domains via stress-mediated coupling. The utilization of composite multiferroics consisting of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials offers flexibility for the separate adjustment of electric and magnetic characteristics. The structure of the proposed interconnect resembles a parallel plate capacitor filled with a piezoelectric, where one of the plates comprises a magnetoelastic material. An electric field applied across the plates of the capacitor produces stress, which, in turn, affects the magnetic properties of the magnetostrictive material. The charging of the capacitor from one edge results in the charge diffusion accompanied by the magnetization change in the magnetostrictive layer. This enables the amplitude of the magnetic signal to remain constant during the propagation. The operation of the proposed interconnects is illustrated by numerical modeling. The model is based on the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation with the electric field-dependent anisotropy term included. A variety of magnetic logic devices and architectures can benefit from the proposed interconnects, as they provide reliable and low-energy-consuming data transmission. According to the estimates, the group velocity of magnetic signals may be up to 105 m/s with energy dissipation less than 10−18 J per bit per 100 nm. The physical limits and practical challenges of the proposed approach are also discussed. 
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  4. In this work, we consider the possibility of building a magnonic co-processor for special task data processing. Its principle of operation is based on the natural property of an active ring circuit to self-adjust to the resonant frequency. The co-processor comprises a multi-path active ring circuit where the magnetic part is a mesh of magnonic waveguides. Each waveguide acts as a phase shifter and a frequency filter at the same time. Being connected to the external electric part, the system naturally searches for the path which matches the phase of the electric part. This property can be utilized for solving a variety of mathematical problems including prime factorization, bridges of the Konigsberg problem, traveling salesman, etc. We also present experimental data on the proof-of-the-concept experiment demonstrating the spin wave signal re-routing inside a magnonic matrix depending on the position of the electric phase shifter. The magnetic part is a 3 × 3 matrix of waveguides made of single-crystal yttrium iron garnet Y 3 Fe 2 (FeO 4 ) 3 films. The results demonstrate a prominent change in the output power at different ports depending on the position of the electric phase shifter. The described magnonic co-processor is robust, deterministic, and operates at room temperature. The ability to exploit the unique physical properties inherent in spin waves and classical wave superposition may be translated into a huge functional throughput that may exceed [Formula: see text] operations per meter squared per second for [Formula: see text] magnetic mesh. Physical limits and constraints are also discussed. 
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  5. In this work, we present experimental data demonstrating the feasibility of magnetic object location using spin waves. The test structure includes a Y3Fe2(FeO4)3film with four micro-antennas placed on the edges. A constant in-plane bias magnetic field is provided by the NdFeB permanent magnet. Two antennas are used for spin wave excitation, while the other two are used for the inductive voltage measurement. There are nine selected places for the micro magnet on the top of the film. The micro magnet was subsequently placed in all nine positions and spin wave transmission and reflection were measured. The obtained experimental data show the difference in the output signal amplitude depending on the micro magnet position. All nine locations can be identified by the frequency and the amplitude of the absolute minimum in the output power. All experiments are accomplished at room temperature. Potentially, spin waves can be utilized for remote magnetic bit readout. The disadvantages and physical constraints of this approach are also discussed.

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