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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 24, 2024
  2. Abstract

    This paper provides a review of the literature regarding methods for constructing prediction intervals for counting variables, with particular focus on those whose distributions are Poisson or derived from Poisson and with an over‐dispersion property. Independent and identically distributed models and regression models are both considered. The motivating problem for this review is that of predicting the number of daily and cumulative cases or deaths attributable to COVID‐19 at a future date.

    This article is categorized under:

    Applications of Computational Statistics > Clinical Trials

    Statistical Learning and Exploratory Methods of the Data Sciences > Modeling Methods

    Statistical Models > Generalized Linear Models

     
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  3. Frequent blood pressure monitoring is the key to diagnosis and treatments of many severe diseases. However, the conventional ambulatory methods require patients to carry a blood pressure (BP) monitoring device for 24 h and conduct the measurement every 10--15 min. Despite their extensive usage, wearing the wrist/arm-based BP monitoring device for a long time has a significant impact on users' daily activities. To address the problem, we developed eBP to measure blood pressure (BP) from inside user's ear aiming to minimize the measurement's impact on users' normal activities although maximizing its comfort level. The key novelty of eBP includes (1) a light-based inflatable pulse sensor which goes inside the ear, (2) a digital air pump with a fine controller, and (3) BP estimation algorithms that eliminate the need of blocking the blood flow inside the ear. Through the comparative study of 35 subjects, eBP can achieve the average error of 1.8 mmHg for systolic (high-pressure value) and -3.1 mmHg for diastolic (low-pressure value) with the standard deviation error of 7.2 mmHg and 7.9 mmHg, respectively. These results satisfy the FDA's AAMI standard, which requires a mean error of less than 5 mmHg and a standard deviation of less than 8 mmHg. 
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  4. Abstract

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is arguably the most important tool for atomic‐scale material characterization. A significant portion of the energy of transmitted electrons is transferred to the material under study through inelastic scattering, causing inadvertent damage via ionization, radiolysis, and heating. In particular, heat generation complicates TEM observations as the local temperature can affect material properties. Here, the heat generation due to electron irradiation is quantified using both top‐down and bottom‐up approaches: direct temperature measurements using nanowatt calorimeters as well as the quantification of energy loss due to inelastic scattering events using electron energy loss spectroscopy. Combining both techniques, a microscopic model is developed for beam‐induced heating and to identify the primary electron‐to‐heat conversion mechanism to be associated with valence electrons. Building on these results, the model provides guidelines to estimate temperature rise for general materials with reasonable accuracy. This study extends the ability to quantify thermal impact on materials down to the atomic scale.

     
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