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A framework for ensemble modelling of climate change impacts on lakes worldwide: the ISIMIP Lake SectorAbstract. Empirical evidence demonstrates that lakes and reservoirs are warming acrossthe globe. Consequently, there is an increased need to project futurechanges in lake thermal structure and resulting changes in lakebiogeochemistry in order to plan for the likely impacts. Previous studies ofthe impacts of climate change on lakes have often relied on a single modelforced with limited scenario-driven projections of future climate for arelatively small number of lakes. As a result, our understanding of theeffects of climate change on lakes is fragmentary, based on scatteredstudies using different data sources and modelling protocols, and mainlyfocused on individual lakes or lake regions. This has precludedidentification of the main impacts of climate change on lakes at global andregional scales and has likely contributed to the lack of lake water qualityconsiderations in policy-relevant documents, such as the Assessment Reportsof the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Here, we describe asimulation protocol developed by the Lake Sector of the Inter-SectoralImpact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) for simulating climate changeimpacts on lakes using an ensemble of lake models and climate changescenarios for ISIMIP phases 2 and 3. The protocol prescribes lakesimulations driven by climate forcing from gridded observations anddifferent Earth system models under various representative greenhouse gasconcentration pathwaysmore »
Ice cover plays a critical role in physical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes in lakes. Despite its importance, winter limnology remains relatively understudied. Here, we provide a primer on the predominant drivers of freshwater lake ice cover and the current methodologies used to study lake ice, including in situ and remote sensing observations, physical based models, and experiments. We highlight opportunities for future research by integrating these four disciplines to address key knowledge gaps in our understanding of lake ice dynamics in changing winters. Advances in technology, data integration, and interdisciplinary collaboration will allow the field to move toward developing global forecasts of lake ice cover for small to large lakes across broad spatial and temporal scales, quantifying ice quality and ice thickness, moving from binary to continuous ice records, and determining how winter ice conditions and quality impact ecosystem processes in lakes over winter. Ultimately, integrating disciplines will improve our ability to understand the impacts of changing winters on lake ice.
The extent and variability of storm‐induced temperature changes in lakes measured with long‐term and high‐frequency data
The intensity and frequency of storms are projected to increase in many regions of the world because of climate change. Storms can alter environmental conditions in many ecosystems. In lakes and reservoirs, storms can reduce epilimnetic temperatures from wind‐induced mixing with colder hypolimnetic waters, direct precipitation to the lake's surface, and watershed runoff. We analyzed 18 long‐term and high‐frequency lake datasets from 11 countries to assess the magnitude of wind‐ vs. rainstorm‐induced changes in epilimnetic temperature. We found small day‐to‐day epilimnetic temperature decreases in response to strong wind and heavy rain during stratified conditions. Day‐to‐day epilimnetic temperature decreased, on average, by 0.28°C during the strongest windstorms (storm mean daily wind speed among lakes: 6.7 ± 2.7 m s−1, 1 SD) and by 0.15°C after the heaviest rainstorms (storm mean daily rainfall: 21.3 ± 9.0 mm). The largest decreases in epilimnetic temperature were observed ≥2 d after sustained strong wind or heavy rain (top 5thpercentile of wind and rain events for each lake) in shallow and medium‐depth lakes. The smallest decreases occurred in deep lakes. Epilimnetic temperature change from windstorms, but not rainstorms, was negatively correlated with maximum lake depth. However, even the largest storm‐induced mean epilimnetic temperature decreases were typically <2°C. Day‐to‐day temperature change, inmore »