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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. We study the existence and stability of propagating fronts in Meinhardt’s multivariable reaction-diffusion model of branching in one spatial dimension. We identify a saddle-node-infinite-period bifurcation of fronts that leads to episodic front propagation in the parameter region below propagation failure and show that this state is stable. Stable constant speed fronts exist only above this parameter value. We use numerical continuation to show that propagation failure is a consequence of the presence of a T-point corresponding to the formation of a heteroclinic cycle in a spatial dynamics description. Additional T-points are identified that are responsible for a large multiplicity of different unstable traveling front-peak states. The results indicate that multivariable models may support new types of behavior that are absent from typical two-variable models but may nevertheless be important in developmental processes such as branching and somitogenesis. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. We study the linear stability properties of spatially localized single- and multi-peak states generated in a subcritical Turing bifurcation in the Meinhardt model of branching. In one spatial dimension, these states are organized in a foliated snaking structure owing to peak–peak repulsion but are shown to be all linearly unstable, with the number of unstable modes increasing with the number of peaks present. Despite this, in two spatial dimensions, direct numerical simulations reveal the presence of stable single- and multi-spot states whose properties depend on the repulsion from nearby spots as well as the shape of the domain and the boundary conditions imposed thereon. Front propagation is shown to trigger the growth of new spots while destabilizing others. The results indicate that multi-variable models may support new types of behavior that are absent from typical two-variable models. 
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  5. This work employs single-mode equations to study convection and double-diffusive convection in a porous medium where the Darcy law provides large-scale damping. We first consider thermal convection with salinity as a passive scalar. The single-mode solutions resembling steady convection rolls reproduce the qualitative behavior of root-mean-square and mean temperature profiles of time-dependent states at high Rayleigh numbers from direct numerical simulations (DNS). We also show that the single-mode solutions are consistent with the heat-exchanger model that describes well the mean temperature gradient in the interior. The Nusselt number predicted from the single-mode solutions exhibits a scaling law with Rayleigh number close to that followed by exact 2D steady convection rolls, although large aspect ratio DNS results indicate a faster increase. However, the single-mode solutions at a high wavenumber predict Nusselt numbers close to the DNS results in narrow domains. We also employ the single-mode equations to analyze the influence of active salinity, introducing a salinity contribution to the buoyancy, but with a smaller diffusivity than the temperature. The single-mode solutions are able to capture the stabilizing effect of an imposed salinity gradient and describe the standing and traveling wave behaviors observed in DNS. The Sherwood numbers obtained from single-mode solutions show a scaling law with the Lewis number that is close to the DNS computations with passive or active salinity. This work demonstrates that single-mode solutions can be successfully applied to this system whenever periodic or no-flux boundary conditions apply in the horizontal. 
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  6. Bifurcation analysis of confined salt-finger convection using single-mode equations obtained from a severely truncated Fourier expansion in the horizontal is performed. Strongly nonlinear staircase-like solutions having, respectively, one (S1), two (S2) and three (S3) regions of mixed salinity in the vertical direction are computed using numerical continuation, and their stability properties are determined. Near onset, the one-layer S1 solution is stable and corresponds to maximum salinity transport among the three solutions. The S2 and S3 solutions are unstable but exert an influence on the statistics observed in direct numerical simulations (DNS) in larger two-dimensional (2-D) domains. Secondary bifurcations of S1 lead either to tilted-finger (TF1) or to travelling wave (TW1) solutions, both accompanied by the spontaneous generation of large-scale shear, a process favoured for lower density ratios and Prandtl numbers ( $Pr$ ). These states at low $Pr$ are associated, respectively, with two-layer and three-layer staircase-like salinity profiles in the mean. States breaking reflection symmetry in the midplane are also computed. In two dimensions and for low $Pr$ , the DNS results favour direction-reversing tilted fingers resembling the pulsating wave state observed in other systems. Two-layer and three-layer mean salinity profiles corresponding to reversing tilted fingers and TW1 are observed in 2-D DNS averaged over time. The single-mode solutions close to the high wavenumber onset are in an excellent agreement with 2-D DNS in small horizontal domains and compare well with 3-D DNS. 
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  7. Instabilities of fluid flows often generate turbulence. Using extensive direct numerical simulations, we study two-dimensional turbulence driven by a wavenumber-localised instability superposed on stochastic forcing, in contrast to previous studies of state-independent forcing. As the contribution of the instability forcing, measured by a parameter $\gamma$ , increases, the system undergoes two transitions. For $\gamma$ below a first threshold, a regular large-scale vortex condensate forms. Above this threshold, shielded vortices (SVs) emerge within the condensate. At a second, larger value of $\gamma$ , the condensate breaks down, and a gas of weakly interacting vortices with broken symmetry spontaneously emerges, characterised by preponderance of vortices of one sign only and suppressed inverse energy cascade. The latter transition is shown to depend on the damping mechanism. The number density of SVs in the broken symmetry state slowly increases via a random nucleation process. Bistability is observed between the condensate and mixed SV-condensate states. Our findings provide new evidence for a strong dependence of two-dimensional turbulence phenomenology on the forcing. 
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