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Creators/Authors contains: "Kono, Junichiro"

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  1. Abstract

    Some of the most exotic properties of the quantum vacuum are predicted in ultrastrongly coupled photon–atom systems; one such property is quantum squeezing leading to suppressed quantum fluctuations of photons and atoms. This squeezing is unique because (1) it is realized in the ground state of the system and does not require external driving, and (2) the squeezing can be perfect in the sense that quantum fluctuations of certain observables are completely suppressed. Specifically, we investigate the ground state of the Dicke model, which describes atoms collectively coupled to a single photonic mode, and we found that the photon–atom fluctuation vanishes at the onset of the superradiant phase transition in the thermodynamic limit of an infinite number of atoms. Moreover, when a finite number of atoms is considered, the variance of the fluctuation around the critical point asymptotically converges to zero, as the number of atoms is increased. In contrast to the squeezed states of flying photons obtained using standard generation protocols with external driving, the squeezing obtained in the ground state of the ultrastrongly coupled photon–atom systems is resilient against unpredictable noise.

  2. Abstract

    In the superradiant phase transition (SRPT), coherent light and matter fields are expected to appear spontaneously in a coupled light–matter system in thermal equilibrium. However, such an equilibrium SRPT is forbidden in the case of charge-based light–matter coupling, known as no-go theorems. Here, we show that the low-temperature phase transition of ErFeO3at a critical temperature of approximately 4 K is an equilibrium SRPT achieved through coupling between Fe3+magnons and Er3+spins. By verifying the efficacy of our spin model using realistic parameters evaluated via terahertz magnetospectroscopy and magnetization experiments, we demonstrate that the cooperative, ultrastrong magnon–spin coupling causes the phase transition. In contrast to prior studies on laser-driven non-equilibrium SRPTs in atomic systems, the magnonic SRPT in ErFeO3occurs in thermal equilibrium in accordance with the originally envisioned SRPT, thereby yielding a unique ground state of a hybrid system in the ultrastrong coupling regime.

  3. For easy manipulation of polarization states of light for applications in communications, imaging, and information processing, an efficient mechanism is desired for rotating light polarization with a minimum interaction length. Here, we report giant polarization rotations for terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves in ultrathin (∼<#comment/>45nm), high-density films of aligned carbon nanotubes. We observed polarization rotations of up to∼<#comment/>20∘<#comment/>and∼<#comment/>110∘<#comment/>for transmitted and reflected THz pulses, respectively. The amount of polarization rotation was a sensitive function of the angle between the incident THz polarization and the nanotube alignment direction, exhibiting a “magic” angle at which the total rotation through transmission and reflection becomes exactly 90°. Our model quantitatively explains these giant rotations as a result of extremely anisotropic optical constants, demonstrating that aligned carbon nanotubes promise ultrathin, broadband, and tunable THz polarization devices.