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  1. Micro-blade design is an important factor in the cutting of single cells and other biological structures. This paper describes the fabrication process of three-dimensional (3D) micro-blades for the cutting of single cells in a microfluidic “guillotine” intended for fundamental wound repair and regeneration studies. Our microfluidic guillotine consists of a fixed 3D micro-blade centered in a microchannel to bisect cells flowing through. We show that the Nanoscribe two-photon polymerization direct laser writing system is capable of fabricating complex 3D micro-blade geometries. However, structures made of the Nanoscribe IP-S resin have low adhesion to silicon, and they tend to peel off from the substrate after at most two times of replica molding in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Our work demonstrates that the use of a secondary mold replicates Nanoscribe-printed features faithfully for at least 10 iterations. Finally, we show that complex micro-blade features can generate different degrees of cell wounding and cell survival rates compared with simple blades possessing a vertical cutting edge fabricated with conventional 2.5D photolithography. Our work lays the foundation for future applications in single cell analyses, wound repair and regeneration studies, as well as investigations of the physics of cutting and the interaction between the micro-blade and biological structures.

    The formation and evolution of local brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) is investigated by determining the stellar populations and dynamics from the galaxy core, through the outskirts and into the intracluster light (ICL). Integral spectroscopy of 23 BCGs observed out to $4\, r_{e}$ is collected and high signal-to-noise regions are identified. Stellar population synthesis codes are used to determine the age, metallicity, velocity, and velocity dispersion of stars within each region. The ICL spectra are best modelled with populations that are younger and less metal-rich than those of the BCG cores. The average BCG core age of the sample is $\rm 13.3\pm 2.8\, Gyr$ and the average metallicity is $\rm [Fe/H] = 0.30\pm 0.09$, whereas for the ICL the average age is $\rm 9.2\pm 3.5\, Gyr$ and the average metallicity is $\rm [Fe/H] = 0.18\pm 0.16$. The velocity dispersion profile is seen to be rising or flat in most of the sample (17/23), and those with rising values reach the value of the host cluster’s velocity dispersion in several cases. The most extended BCGs are closest to the peak of the cluster’s X-ray luminosity. The results are consistent with the idea that the BCG cores and inner regions formed quicklymore »and long ago, with the outer regions and ICL forming more recently, and continuing to assemble through minor merging. Any recent star formation in the BCGs is a minor component, and is associated with the cluster cool core status.

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