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  1. A reconfigurable phononic crystal (PnC) is proposed where elastic properties can be modulated by rotation of asymmetric solid scatterers immersed in water. The scatterers are metallic rods with a cross section of 120◦ circular sector. Orientation of each rod is independently controlled by an external electric motor that allows continuous variation of the local scattering parameters and dispersion of sound in the entire crystal. Due to asymmetry of the scatterers, the crystal band structure possesses highly anisotropic band gaps. Synchronous rotation of all the scatterers by a definite angle changes the regime of reflection to the regime of transmission and vice versa. The same mechanically tunable structure functions as a gradient index medium by incremental, angular reorientation of rods along both row and column, and, subsequently, can serve as a tunable acoustic lens, an acoustic beam splitter, and finally an acoustic beam steerer. 
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  2. Defect mode induced energy trapping at the bandgap frequency of a phononic crystal has been widely explored. Unlike this extensively used mechanism, this work reports the use of nonreciprocity in the transmission band to trap energy inside a phononic crystal cavity. Passive nonreciprocity is due to natural viscosity of the background liquid (water) and asymmetry of aluminum scatterers. The level of nonresonant energy trapping was compared for three cavities with different symmetry. Enhancement of energy trapping at a frequency of 624 kHz was observed experimentally for the cavity where nonreciprocity suppresses acoustic radiation into environment. Experimental results were further investigated and confirmed using finite element numerical analysis. 
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  3. The square lattice phononic crystal (PnC) has been used extensively to demonstrate metamaterial effects. Here, positive and negative refraction and reflection are observed simultaneously due to the presence of Umklapp scattering of sound at the surface of PnC and square-like equifrequency contours (EFCs). It is found that a shift in the EFC of the third transmission band away from the center of the Brillouin zone results in an effectively inverted EFC. The overlap of the EFC of the second and third band produce quasimomentum-matching conditions that lead to multi-refringence phenomena from a single incident beam without the introduction of defects into the lattice. Additionally, the coupling of a near-normal incident wave to a propagating almost perpendicular Bloch mode is shown to lead to strong right-angle redirection and collimation of the incident acoustic beam. Each effect is demonstrated both numerically and experimentally for scattering of ultrasound at a 10-period PnC slab in water environment. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Rapid thermokinetics associated with laser-based additive manufacturing produces strong bulk crystallographic texture in the printed component. The present study identifies such a bulk texture effect on elastic anisotropy in laser powder bed fused Ti6Al4V by employing an effective bulk modulus elastography technique coupled with ultrasound shear wave velocity measurement at a frequency of 20 MHz inside the material. The combined technique identified significant attenuation of shear velocity from 3322 ± 20.12 to 3240 ± 21.01 m/s at 45 $$^\circ$$ ∘ and 90 $$^\circ$$ ∘ orientations of shear wave plane with respect to the build plane of printed block of Ti6Al4V. Correspondingly, the reduction in shear modulus from 48.46 ± 0.82 to 46.40 ± 0.88 GPa was obtained at these orientations. Such attenuation is rationalized based on the orientations of $$\alpha ^\prime$$ α ′ crystallographic variants within prior columnar $$\beta$$ β grains in additively manufactured Ti6Al4V. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    An acoustic metamaterial superlattice is used for the spatial and spectral deconvolution of a broadband acoustic pulse into narrowband signals with different central frequencies. The operating frequency range is located on the second transmission band of the superlattice. The decomposition of the broadband pulse was achieved by the frequency-dependent refraction angle in the superlattice. The refracted angle within the acoustic superlattice was larger at higher operating frequency and verified by numerical calculated and experimental mapped sound fields between the layers. The spatial dispersion and the spectral decomposition of a broadband pulse were studied using lateral position-dependent frequency spectra experimentally with and without the superlattice structure along the direction of the propagating acoustic wave. In the absence of the superlattice, the acoustic propagation was influenced by the usual divergence of the beam, and the frequency spectrum was unaffected. The decomposition of the broadband wave in the superlattice’s presence was measured by two-dimensional spatial mapping of the acoustic spectra along the superlattice’s in-plane direction to characterize the propagation of the beam through the crystal. About 80% of the frequency range of the second transmission band showed exceptional performance on decomposition. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    It is demonstrated that acoustic transmission through a phononic crystal with anisotropic solid scatterers becomes non-reciprocal if the background fluid is viscous. In an ideal (inviscid) fluid, the transmission along the direction of broken P symmetry is asymmetric. This asymmetry is compatible with reciprocity since time-reversal symmetry ( T symmetry) holds. Viscous losses break T symmetry, adding a non-reciprocal contribution to the transmission coefficient. The non-reciprocal transmission spectra for a phononic crystal of metallic circular cylinders in water are experimentally obtained and analysed. The surfaces of the cylinders were specially processed in order to weakly break P symmetry and increase viscous losses through manipulation of surface features. Subsequently, the non-reciprocal part of transmission is separated from its asymmetric reciprocal part in numerically simulated transmission spectra. The level of non-reciprocity is in agreement with the measure of broken P symmetry. The reported study contradicts commonly accepted opinion that linear dissipation cannot be a reason leading to non-reciprocity. It also opens a way for engineering passive acoustic diodes exploring the natural viscosity of any fluid as a factor leading to non-reciprocity. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
    In this study, a novel ultrasonic non-destructive and non-invasive elastography method was introduced and demonstrated to evaluate the mechanical properties of fused deposition modeling 3D printed objects using two-dimensional dynamical elasticity mapping. Based on the recently investigated dynamic bulk modulus and effective density imaging technique, an angle-dependent dynamic shear modulus measurement was performed to extract the dynamic Young’s modulus distribution of the FDM structures. The elastographic image analysis demonstrated the presence of anisotropic dynamic shear modulus and dynamic Young’s modulus existing in the fused deposition modeling 3D printed objects. The non-destructive method also differentiated samples with high contrast property zones from that of low contrast property regions. The angle-dependent elasticity contrast behavior from the ultrasonic method was compared with conventional and static tensile tests characterization. A good correlation between the nondestructive technique and the tensile test measurements was observed. 
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  9. null (Ed.)