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  1. Context has been recognized as an important factor to consider in personalized recommender systems. Particularly in location-based services (LBSs), a fundamental task is to recommend to a mobile user where he/she could be interested to visit next at the right time. Additionally, location-based social networks (LBSNs) allow users to share location-embedded information with friends who often co-occur in the same or nearby points-of-interest (POIs) or share similar POI visiting histories, due to the social homophily theory and Tobler’s first law of geography. So, both the time information and LBSN friendship relations should be utilized for POI recommendation. Tensor completion has recently gained some attention in time-aware recommender systems. The problem decomposes a user-item-time tensor into low-rank embedding matrices of users, items and times using its observed entries, so that the underlying low-rank subspace structure can be tracked to fill the missing entries for time-aware recommendation. However, these tensor completion methods ignore the social-spatial context information available in LBSNs, which is important for POI recommendation since people tend to share their preferences with their friends, and near things are more related than distant things. In this paper, we utilize the side information of social networks and POI locations to enhance themore »tensor completion model paradigm for more effective time-aware POI recommendation. Specifically, we propose a regularization loss head based on a novel social Hausdorff distance function to optimize the reconstructed tensor. We also quantify the popularity of different POIs with location entropy to prevent very popular POIs from being over-represented hence suppressing the appearance of other more diverse POIs. To address the sensitivity of negative sampling, we train the model on the whole data by treating all unlabeled entries in the observed tensor as negative, and rewriting the loss function in a smart way to reduce the computational cost. Through extensive experiments on real datasets, we demonstrate the superiority of our model over state-of-the-art tensor completion methods.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Finding from a big graph those subgraphs that satisfy certain conditions is useful in many applications such as community detection and subgraph matching. These problems have a high time complexity, but existing systems that attempt to scale them are all IO-bound in execution. We propose the first truly CPU-bound distributed framework called G-thinker for subgraph finding algorithms, which adopts a task-based computation model, and which also provides a user-friendly subgraph-centric vertex-pulling API for writing distributed subgraph finding algorithms that can be easily adapted from existing serial algorithms. To utilize all CPU cores of a cluster, G-thinker features (1) a highly concurrent vertex cache for parallel task access and (2) a lightweight task scheduling approach that ensures high task throughput. These designs well overlap communication with computation to minimize the idle time of CPU cores. To further improve load balancing on graphs where the workloads of individual tasks can be drastically different due to biased graph density distribution, we propose to prioritize the scheduling of those tasks that tend to be long running for processing and decomposition, plus a timeout mechanism for task decomposition to prevent long-running straggler tasks. The idea has been integrated into a novelty algorithm for maximum cliquemore »finding (MCF) that adopts a hybrid task decomposition strategy, which significantly improves the running time of MCF on dense and large graphs: The algorithm finds a maximum clique of size 1,109 on a large and dense WikiLinks graph dataset in 70 minutes. Extensive experiments demonstrate that G-thinker achieves orders of magnitude speedup compared even with the fastest existing subgraph-centric system, and it scales well to much larger and denser real network data. G-thinker is open-sourced at http://bit.ly/gthinker with detailed documentation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Matrix completion is a well-known approach for recommender systems. It predicts the values of the missing entries in a sparse user-item interaction matrix, based on the low-rank structure of the rating matrix. However, existing matrix completion methods do not take node polysemy and side information of social relationships into consideration, which can otherwise further improve the performance. In this paper, we propose a novel matrix completion method that employs both users’ friendships and rating entries to predict the missing values in a user-item matrix. Our approach adopts a graph-based modeling where nodes are users and items, and two types of edges are considered: user friendships and user-item interactions. Polysemy-aware node features are extracted from this heterogeneous graph through a graph convolution network by considering the multifaceted factors for edge formation, which are then connected to a hybrid loss function with two heads: (1) a social-homophily head to address node polysemy, and (2) an error head for user-item rating regression. The latter is formulated on all matrix entries to combat the sensitivity of negative sampling of the vast majority of missing entries during training, with a smart technique to reduce the time complexity. Extensive experiments over real datasets verify that ourmore »model outperforms the state-of-the-art matrix completion methods by a significant margin.« less
  4. A natural language interface (NLI) to databases is an interface that translates a natural language question to a structured query that is executable by database management systems (DBMS). However, an NLI that is trained in the general domain is hard to apply in the spatial domain due to the idiosyncrasy and expressiveness of the spatial questions. Inspired by the machine comprehension model, we propose a spatial comprehension model that is able to recognize the meaning of spatial entities based on the semantics of the context. The spatial semantics learned from the spatial comprehension model is then injected to the natural language question to ease the burden of capturing the spatial-specific semantics. With our spatial comprehension model and information injection, our NLI for the spatial domain, named SpatialNLI, is able to capture the semantic structure of the question and translate it to the corresponding syntax of an executable query accurately. We also experimentally ascertain that SpatialNLI outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
  5. Mining from a big graph those subgraphs that satisfy certain conditions is useful in many applications such as community detection and subgraph matching. These problems have a high time complexity, but existing systems to scale them are all IO-bound in execution. We propose the first truly CPU-bound distributed framework called G-thinker that adopts a user-friendly subgraph-centric vertex-pulling API for writing distributed subgraph mining algorithms. To utilize all CPU cores of a cluster, G-thinker features (1) a highly-concurrent vertex cache for parallel task access and (2) a lightweight task scheduling approach that ensures high task throughput. These designs well overlap communication with computation to minimize the CPU idle time. Extensive experiments demonstrate that G-thinker achieves orders of magnitude speedup compared even with the fastest existing subgraph-centric system, and it scales well to much larger and denser real network data. G-thinker is open-sourced at http://bit.ly/gthinker with detailed documentation.