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    The physical processes by which gas is accreted onto galaxies, transformed into stars, and then expelled from galaxies are of paramount importance to galaxy evolution studies. Observationally constraining each of these baryonic components in the same system, however, is challenging. Furthermore, simulations indicate that the stellar mass of galaxies is a key factor influencing CGM properties. Indeed, absorption lines detected against background quasars offer the most compelling way to study the cold gas in the circumgalactic medium (CGM). The MUSE-ALMA Haloes survey is composed of quasar fields covered with VLT/MUSE observations, comprising 32 H i absorbers at 0.2 < z < 1.4 and 79 associated galaxies, with available or upcoming molecular gas measurements from ALMA. We use a dedicated 40-orbit HST UVIS and IR WFC3 broad-band imaging campaign to characterize the stellar content of these galaxies. By fitting their spectral energy distribution, we establish they probe a wide range of stellar masses: 8.1 < log (M*/M⊙) < 12.4. Given their star formation rates, most of these objects lie on the main sequence of galaxies. We also confirm a previously reported anticorrelation between the stellar masses and CGM hydrogen column density N (H i), indicating an evolutionary trend where higher mass galaxies are less likely to host large amounts of H i gas in their immediate vicinity up to 120 kpc. Together with other studies from the MUSE-ALMA Haloes survey, these data provide stellar masses of absorber hosts, a key component of galaxy formation and evolution, and observational constraints on the relation between galaxies and their surrounding medium.

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  2. Abstract

    Abundances of chemical elements in the interstellar and circumgalactic media of high-redshift galaxies offer important constraints on the nucleosynthesis by early generations of stars. Damped Lyαabsorbers (DLAs) in spectra of high-redshift background quasars are excellent sites for obtaining robust measurements of element abundances in distant galaxies. Past studies of DLAs at redshiftsz> 4 have measured abundances of ≲0.01 solar. Here we report the discovery of a DLA atz= 4.7372 with an exceptionally high degree of chemical enrichment. We estimate the Hicolumn density in this absorber to be log (NH I/cm−2) = 20.48 ± 0.15. Our analysis shows unusually high abundances of carbon and oxygen ([C/H] = 0.88 ± 0.17, [O/H] = 0.71 ± 0.16). Such a high level of enrichment a mere 1.2 Gyr after the Big Bang is surprising because of insufficient time for the required amount of star formation. To our knowledge, this is the first supersolar absorber found atz> 4.5. We find the abundances of Si and Mg to be [Si/H] =0.560.35+0.40and [Mg/H] =0.590.50+0.27, confirming the metal-rich nature of this absorber. By contrast, Fe shows a much lower abundance ([Fe/H] =1.530.15+0.15). We discuss implications of our results for galactic chemical evolution models. The metallicity of this absorber is higher than that of any other known DLA and is >2 orders of magnitude above predictions of chemical evolution models and theNH I-weighted mean metallicity from previous studies atz> 4.5. The relative abundances (e.g., [O/Fe] = 2.29 ± 0.05, [C/Fe] = 2.46 ± 0.08) are also highly unusual compared to predictions for enrichment by early stars.

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  3. Abstract

    We analyze the cool gas in and around 14 nearby galaxies (atz< 0.1) mapped with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV MaNGA survey by measuring absorption lines produced by gas in spectra of background quasars/active galactic nuclei at impact parameters of 0–25 effective radii from the galactic centers. Using Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, we detect absorption at the galactic redshift and measure or constrain column densities of neutral (Hi, Ni, Oi, and Ari), low-ionization (Siii, Sii, Cii, Nii, and Feii), and high-ionization (Siiii, Feiii, Nv, and Ovi) species for 11 galaxies. We derive the ionization parameter and ionization-corrected metallicity usingcloudyphotoionization models. The Hicolumn density ranges from ∼1013to ∼1020cm−2and decreases with impact parameter forrRe. Galaxies with higher stellar mass have weaker Hiabsorption. Comparing absorption velocities with MaNGA radial velocity maps of ionized gas line emissions in galactic disks, we find that the neutral gas seen in absorption corotates with the disk out to ∼10Re. Sight lines with lower elevation angles show lower metallicities, consistent with the metallicity gradient in the disk derived from MaNGA maps. Higher-elevation angle sight lines show higher ionization, lower Hicolumn density, supersolar metallicity, and velocities consistent with the direction of galactic outflow. Our data offer the first detailed comparisons of circumgalactic medium (CGM) properties (kinematics and metallicity) with extrapolations of detailed galaxy maps from integral field spectroscopy; similar studies for larger samples are needed to more fully understand how galaxies interact with their CGM.

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    Understanding how galaxies interact with the circumgalactic medium (CGM) requires determining how galaxies’ morphological and stellar properties correlate with their CGM properties. We report an analysis of 66 well-imaged galaxies detected in Hubble Space Telescope and Very Large Telescope MUSE observations and determined to be within ±500 km s−1 of the redshifts of strong intervening quasar absorbers at 0.2 ≲ z ≲ 1.4 with H i column densities $N_{\rm H I} \gt 10^{18}\, \rm cm^{-2}$. We present the geometrical properties (Sérsic indices, effective radii, axis ratios, and position angles) of these galaxies determined using galfit. Using these properties along with star formation rates (SFRs, estimated using the H α or [O ii] luminosity) and stellar masses (M* estimated from spectral energy distribution fits), we examine correlations among various stellar and CGM properties. Our main findings are as follows: (1) SFR correlates well with M*, and most absorption-selected galaxies are consistent with the star formation main sequence of the global population. (2) More massive absorber counterparts are more centrally concentrated and are larger in size. (3) Galaxy sizes and normalized impact parameters correlate negatively with NHI, consistent with higher NHI absorption arising in smaller galaxies, and closer to galaxy centres. (4) Absorption and emission metallicities correlate with M* and specific SFR, implying metal-poor absorbers arise in galaxies with low past star formation and faster current gas consumption rates. (5) SFR surface densities of absorption-selected galaxies are higher than predicted by the Kennicutt–Schmidt relation for local galaxies, suggesting a higher star formation efficiency in the absorption-selected galaxies.

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    The flow of gas into and out of galaxies leaves traces in the circumgalactic medium which can then be studied using absorption lines towards background quasars. We analyse 27 ${{\log [N({\textrm {H}}\, {\small {I}})/\rm {cm}^{-2}]}} > 18.0$ H i absorbers at z = 0.2 to 1.4 from the MUSE-ALMA Haloes survey with at least one galaxy counterpart within a line of sight velocity of ±500 km s−1. We perform 3D kinematic forward modelling of these associated galaxies to examine the flow of dense, neutral gas in the circumgalactic medium. From the VLT/MUSE, HST broad-band imaging, and VLT/UVES and Keck/HIRES high-resolution UV quasar spectroscopy observations, we compare the impact parameters, star-formation rates, and stellar masses of the associated galaxies with the absorber properties. We find marginal evidence for a bimodal distribution in azimuthal angles for strong H i absorbers, similar to previous studies of the Mg ii and O vi absorption lines. There is no clear metallicity dependence on azimuthal angle, and we suggest a larger sample of absorbers is required to fully test the relationship predicted by cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. A case-by-case study of the absorbers reveals that ten per cent of absorbers are consistent with gas accretion, up to 30 per cent trace outflows, and the remainder trace gas in the galaxy disc, the intragroup medium, and low-mass galaxies below the MUSE detection limit. Our results highlight that the baryon cycle directly affects the dense neutral gas required for star-formation and plays a critical role in galaxy evolution.

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  6. Abstract We report Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectroscopy of 10 quasars with foreground star-forming galaxies at 0.02 < z < 0.14 within impact parameters of ∼1–7 kpc. We detect damped/sub-damped Ly α (DLA/sub-DLA) absorption in 100% of cases where no higher-redshift Lyman-limit systems extinguish the flux at the expected wavelength of Ly α absorption, obtaining the largest targeted sample of DLA/sub-DLAs in low-redshift galaxies. We present absorption measurements of neutral hydrogen and metals. Additionally, we present Green Bank Telescope 21 cm emission measurements for five of the galaxies (including two detections). Combining our sample with the literature, we construct a sample of 117 galaxies associated with DLA/sub-DLAs spanning 0 < z < 4.4, and examine trends between gas and stellar properties, and with redshift. The H i column density is anticorrelated with impact parameter and stellar mass. More massive galaxies appear to have gas-rich regions out to larger distances. The specific star formation rate (sSFR) of absorbing galaxies increases with redshift and decreases with M *, consistent with evolution of the star formation main sequence (SFMS). However, ∼20% of absorbing galaxies lie below the SFMS, indicating that some DLA/sub-DLAs trace galaxies with longer-than-typical gas-depletion timescales. Most DLA/sub-DLA galaxies with 21 cm emission have higher H i masses than typical galaxies with comparable M *. High M HI / M * ratios and high sSFRs in DLA/sub-DLA galaxies with M * < 10 9 M ⊙ suggest these galaxies may be gas-rich because of recent gas accretion rather than inefficient star formation. Our study demonstrates the power of absorption and emission studies of DLA/sub-DLA galaxies for extending galactic evolution studies to previously under-explored regimes of low M * and low SFR. 
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  7. Abstract

    We use medium-resolution Keck/Echellette Spectrograph and Imager spectroscopy of bright quasars to study cool gas traced by Caiiλλ3934, 3969 and Naiλλ5891, 5897 absorption in the interstellar/circumgalactic media of 21 foreground star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0.03 <z< 0.20 with stellar masses 7.4 ≤ logM*/M≤ 10.6. The quasar–galaxy pairs were drawn from a unique sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar spectra with intervening nebular emission, and thus have exceptionally close impact parameters (R< 13 kpc). The strength of this line emission implies that the galaxies’ star formation rates (SFRs) span a broad range, with several lying well above the star-forming sequence. We use Voigt profile modeling to derive column densities and component velocities for each absorber, finding that column densitiesN(Caii) > 1012.5cm−2(N(Nai) > 1012.0cm−2) occur with an incidencefC(Caii) = 0.63+0.10−0.11(fC(Nai) = 0.57+0.10−0.11). We find no evidence for a dependence offCor the rest-frame equivalent widthsWr(CaiiK) orWr(Nai5891) onRorM*. Instead,Wr(CaiiK) is correlated with local SFR at >3σsignificance, suggesting that Caiitraces star formation-driven outflows. While most of the absorbers have velocities within ±50 km s−1of the host redshift, their velocity widths (characterized by Δv90) are universally 30–177 km s−1larger than that implied by tilted-ring modeling of the velocities of interstellar material. These kinematics must trace galactic fountain flows and demonstrate that they persist atR> 5 kpc. Finally, we assess the relationship between dust reddening andWr(CaiiK) (Wr(Nai5891)), finding that 33% (24%) of the absorbers are inconsistent with the best-fit Milky WayE(B−V)-Wrrelations at >3σsignificance.

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  8. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We present abundance measurements of the elements Zn, S, O, C, Si, and Fe for four sub-DLAs at redshifts ranging from z = 2.173 to 2.635 using observations from the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan telescope to constrain the chemical enrichment and star formation of gas-rich galaxies. Using weakly depleted elements O, S, and or Zn, we find the metallicities after the photoionization corrections to be [S/H] = −0.50 ± 0.11, [O/H] > −0.84, [O/H] = −1.27 ± 0.12, and [Zn/H]  = +0.40 ± 0.12 for the absorbers at z  = 2.173, 2.236, 2.539, and 2.635, respectively. Moreover, we are able to put constraints on the electron densities using the fine structure lines of C ii⋆ and Si ii⋆ for two of the sub-DLAs. We find that these values are much higher than the median values found in DLAs in the literature. Furthermore, we estimate the cooling rate lc = 1.20 × 10−26 erg s−1 per H atom for an absorber at z = 2.173, suggesting higher star formation rate density in this sub-DLA than the typical star formation rate density for DLAs at similar redshifts. We also study the metallicity versus velocity dispersion relation for our absorbers. Most of the absorbers follow the trend one can expect from the mass versus metallicity relation for sub-DLAs in the literature. Finally, we are able to put limits on the molecular column density from the non-detections of various strong lines of CO molecules. We estimate 3σ upper limits of logN(CO, J = 0) < 13.87, logN(CO, J = 0) < 13.17, and logN(CO, J = 0) < 13.08, respectively, from the non-detections of absorption from the J = 0 level in the CO AX 0–0, 1–0, and 2–0 bands near 1544, 1510, and 1478 Å. 
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  9. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We present results of MUSE-ALMA haloes, an ongoing study of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of galaxies (z ≤ 1.4). Using multiphase observations we probe the neutral, ionized, and molecular gas in a subsample containing six absorbers and nine associated galaxies in the redshift range z ∼ 0.3–0.75. Here, we give an in-depth analysis of the newly CO-detected galaxy Q2131−G1 (z = 0.42974), while providing stringent mass and depletion time limits for the non-detected galaxies. Q2131−G1 is associated with an absorber with column densities of log(NH i/cm−2) ∼ 19.5 and $\textrm {log}(N_{\textrm {H}_2}/\textrm {cm}^{-2}) \sim 16.5$, and has a star formation rate of SFR = 2.00 ± 0.20 M⊙yr−1, a dark matter fraction of fDM(r1/2) = 0.24–0.54, and a molecular gas mass of $M_\textrm {mol} = 3.52 ^{+3.95}_{-0.31} \times 10^9 \,\, \textrm {M}_{\odot }$ resulting in a depletion time of τdep < 4.15 Gyr. Kinematic modelling of both the CO (3–2) and [O iii] λ5008 emission lines of Q2131−G1 shows that the molecular and ionized gas phases are well aligned directionally and that the maximum rotation velocities closely match. These two gas phases within the disc are strongly coupled. The metallicity, kinematics, and orientation of the atomic and molecular gas traced by a two-component absorption feature are consistent with being part of the extended rotating disc with a well-separated additional component associated with infalling gas. Compared to emission-selected samples, we find that H i-selected galaxies have high molecular gas masses given their low star formation rate. We consequently derive high depletion times for these objects. 
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