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  1. Perforated microelectrode arrays (pMEAs) have become essential tools for ex vivo retinal electrophysiological studies. pMEAs increase the nutrient supply to the explant and alleviate the accentuated curvature of the retina, allowing for long-term culture and intimate contacts between the retina and electrodes for electrophysiological measurements. However, commercial pMEAs are not compatible with in situ high-resolution optical imaging and lack the capability of controlling the local microenvironment, which are highly desirable features for relating function to anatomy and probing physiological and pathological mechanisms in retina. Here we report on microfluidic pMEAs (μpMEAs) that combine transparent graphene electrodes and the capability of locally delivering chemical stimulation. We demonstrate the potential of μpMEAs by measuring the electrical response of ganglion cells to locally delivered high K + stimulation under controlled microenvironments. Importantly, the capability for high-resolution confocal imaging of the retina tissue on top of the graphene electrodes allows for further analyses of the electrical signal source. The new capabilities provided by μpMEAs could allow for retinal electrophysiology assays to address key questions in retinal circuitry studies. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 2, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 18, 2024
  3. The origins of cheilostome bryozoans and parental care in this group are substantially older than previously thought. 
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  4. Abstract

    This article addresses the sustainable design of organic Rankine cycle‐based geothermal binary power systems under economic and environmental criteria. A novel superstructure with multiple heat source temperatures, working fluids, and heat rejection systems is proposed. Based on the superstructure, a life cycle optimization model is formulated as a mixed‐integer nonlinear fractional program (MINFP) to determine the optimal design. The nonconvex MINFP is efficiently solved by a tailored global optimization algorithm. Two case studies are considered to demonstrate the proposed modeling framework and solution algorithm. One case is based on a geothermal energy system located in California, and the other one is in New York (NY) State. The results show that the geothermal energy system in California is much more economically competitive than that in NY State. The difference in life cycle environmental impacts is less pronounced because the environmental impacts are less sensitive to geological conditions than the capital investments.

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