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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Phonons traveling in solid-state devices are emerging as a universal excitation for coupling different physical systems. Phonons at microwave frequencies have a similar wavelength to optical photons in solids, enabling optomechanical microwave-optical transduction of classical and quantum signals. It becomes conceivable to build optomechanical integrated circuits (OMIC) that guide both photons and phonons and interconnect photonic and phononic devices. Here, we demonstrate an OMIC including an optomechanical ring resonator (OMR), where  co-resonant infrared photons and GHz phonons induce significantly enhanced interconversion. The platform is hybrid, using wide bandgap semiconductor gallium phosphide (GaP) for waveguiding and piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) for phonon generation. The OMR features photonic and phononic quality factors of >1 × 105and 3.2 × 103, respectively. The optomechanical interconversion between photonic modes achieved an internal conversion efficiency$${\eta }_{i}=(2.1\pm 0.1)\%$$ηi=(2.1±0.1)%and a total device efficiency$${\eta }_{{tot}}=0.57{\times 10}^{-6}$$ηtot=0.57×106at a low acoustic pump power of 1.6 mW. The efficient conversion in OMICs enables microwave-optical transduction for quantum information and microwave photonics applications.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. Rare-earth iron garnets with large magnetic gyrotropy, made with reduced thermal budgets, are ideal magneto-optical materials for integrated isolators. However, reduced thermal budgets impact Faraday rotation by limiting crystallization, and characterization of crystallinity is limited by resolution or scannable area. Here, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is used to measure crystallinity in cerium substituted yttrium- and terbium-iron garnets (CeYIG and CeTbIG) grown on planar Si, crystallized using one-step rapid thermal processes, leading to large Faraday rotations > −3500 °/cm at 1550 nm. Varying degrees of crystallinity are observed in planar Si and patterned Si waveguides, and specific dependences of crystallite size are attributed to the nucleation/growth processes of the garnets and the lateral dimensions of the waveguide. On the other hand, a low thermal budget alternative–exfoliated CeTbIG nanosheets–are fully crystalline and maintain high Faraday rotations of −3200 °/cm on par with monolithically integrated thin film garnets.

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  6. Abstract

    Optical computing with integrated photonics brings a pivotal paradigm shift to data-intensive computing technologies. However, the scaling of on-chip photonic architectures using spatially distributed schemes faces the challenge imposed by the fundamental limit of integration density. Synthetic dimensions of light offer the opportunity to extend the length of operand vectors within a single photonic component. Here, we show that large-scale, complex-valued matrix-vector multiplications on synthetic frequency lattices can be performed using an ultra-efficient, silicon-based nanophotonic cavity acousto-optic modulator. By harnessing the resonantly enhanced strong electro-optomechanical coupling, we achieve, in a single such modulator, the full-range phase-coherent frequency conversions across the entire synthetic lattice, which constitute a fully connected linear computing layer. Our demonstrations open up the route toward the experimental realizations of frequency-domain integrated optical computing systems simultaneously featuring very large-scale data processing and small device footprints.

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  7. Abstract

    Global agricultural trade creates multiple telecoupled flows of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The flows of physical and virtual nutrients along with trade have discrepant effects on natural resources in different countries. However, existing literature has not quantified or analyzed such effects yet. Here we quantified the physical and virtual N and P flows embedded in the global agricultural trade networks from 1997 to 2016 and elaborated components of the telecoupling framework. The N and P flows both increased continuously and more than 25% of global consumption of nutrients in agricultural products were related to physical nutrient flows, while virtual nutrient flows were equivalent to one-third of the nutrients inputs into global agricultural system. These flows have positive telecoupling effects on saving N and P resources at the global scale. Reducing inefficient trade flows will enhance resource conservation, environmental sustainability in the hyper-globalized world.

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  8. Abstract

    Image sensors with internal computing capability enable in-sensor computing that can significantly reduce the communication latency and power consumption for machine vision in distributed systems and robotics. Two-dimensional semiconductors have many advantages in realizing such intelligent vision sensors because of their tunable electrical and optical properties and amenability for heterogeneous integration. Here, we report a multifunctional infrared image sensor based on an array of black phosphorous programmable phototransistors (bP-PPT). By controlling the stored charges in the gate dielectric layers electrically and optically, the bP-PPT’s electrical conductance and photoresponsivity can be locally or remotely programmed with 5-bit precision to implement an in-sensor convolutional neural network (CNN). The sensor array can receive optical images transmitted over a broad spectral range in the infrared and perform inference computation to process and recognize the images with 92% accuracy. The demonstrated bP image sensor array can be scaled up to build a more complex vision-sensory neural network, which will find many promising applications for distributed and remote multispectral sensing.

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