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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 4, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  3. GeoAI, or geospatial artificial intelligence, has become a trending topic and the frontier for spatial analytics in Geography. Although much progress has been made in exploring the integration of AI and Geography, there is yet no clear definition of GeoAI, its scope of research, or a broad discussion of how it enables new ways of problem solving across social and environmental sciences. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of GeoAI research used in large-scale image analysis, and its methodological foundation, most recent progress in geospatial applications, and comparative advantages over traditional methods. We organize this review of GeoAI research according to different kinds of image or structured data, including satellite and drone images, street views, and geo-scientific data, as well as their applications in a variety of image analysis and machine vision tasks. While different applications tend to use diverse types of data and models, we summarized six major strengths of GeoAI research, including (1) enablement of large-scale analytics; (2) automation; (3) high accuracy; (4) sensitivity in detecting subtle changes; (5) tolerance of noise in data; and (6) rapid technological advancement. As GeoAI remains a rapidly evolving field, we also describe current knowledge gaps and discuss future research directions. 
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  4. Bin Li, Xun Shi (Ed.)
  5. Abstract

    Knowledge graphs are a key technique for linking and integrating cross‐domain data, concepts, tools, and knowledge to enable data‐driven analytics. As much of the world's data have become massive in size, visualizing graph entities and their interrelationships intuitively and interactively has become a crucial task for ingesting and better utilizing graph content to support semantic reasoning, discovering hidden knowledge discovering, and better scientific understanding of geophysical and social phenomena. Despite the fact that many such phenomena (e.g., disasters) have clear spatial footprints and geographic properties, their location information is considered only as a textual label in existing graph visualization tools, limiting their capability to reveal the geospatial distribution patterns of the graph nodes. In addition, most graph visualization techniques rely on 2D graph visualization, which constrains the dimensions of information that can be presented and lacks support for graph structure examination from multiple angles. To tackle the above challenges, we developed a novel 3D map‐based graph visualization algorithm to enable interactive exploration of graph content and patterns in a spatially explicit manner. The algorithm extends a 3D force directed graph by integrating a web map, an additional geolocational force, and a force balancing variable that allows for the dynamic adjustment of the 3D graph structure and layout. This mechanism helps create a balanced graph view between the semantic forces among the graph nodes and the attractive force from a geolocation to a graph node. Our solution offers a new perspective in visualizing and understanding spatial entities and events in a knowledge graph.

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  6. Abstract

    Initiated by the University Consortium of Geographic Information Science (UCGIS), the GIS&T Body of Knowledge (BoK) is a community‐driven endeavor to define, develop, and document geospatial topics related to geographic information science and technologies (GIS&T). In recent years, GIS&T BoK has undergone rigorous development in terms of its topic re‐organization and content updating, resulting in a new digital version of the project. While the BoK topics provide useful materials for researchers and students to learn about GIS, the semantic relationships among the topics, such as semantic similarity, should also be identified so that a better and automated topic navigation can be achieved. Currently, the related topics are either defined manually by editors or authors, which may result in an incomplete assessment of topic relationships. To address this challenge, our research evaluates the effectiveness of multiple natural language processing (NLP) techniques in extracting semantics from text, including both deep neural networks and traditional machine learning approaches. Besides, a novel text summarization—KACERS (Keyword‐Aware Cross‐Encoder‐Ranking Summarizer)—is proposed to generate a semantic summary of scientific publications. By identifying the semantic linkages among key topics, this work guides the future development and content organization of the GIS&T BoK project. It also offers a new perspective on the use of machine learning techniques for analyzing scientific publications and demonstrates the potential of the KACERS summarizer in semantic understanding of long text documents.

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