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  1. Two robust rules have been discovered about animal hybrids: Heterogametic hybrids are more unfit (Haldane’s rule), and sex chromosomes are disproportionately involved in hybrid incompatibility (the large-X/Z effect). The exact mechanisms causing these rules in female heterogametic taxa such as butterflies are unknown but are suggested by theory to involve dominance on the sex chromosome. We investigate hybrid incompatibilities adhering to both rules inPapilioandHeliconiusbutterflies and show that dominance theory cannot explain our data. Instead, many defects coincide with unbalanced multilocus introgression between the Z chromosome and all autosomes. Our polygenic explanation predicts both rules because the imbalance is likely greater in heterogametic females, and the proportion of introgressed ancestry is more variable on the Z chromosome. We also show that mapping traits polygenic on a single chromosome in backcrosses can generate spurious large-effect QTLs. This mirage is caused by statistical linkage among polygenes that inflates estimated effect sizes. By controlling for statistical linkage, most incompatibility QTLs in our hybrid crosses are consistent with a polygenic basis. Since the two genera are very distantly related, polygenic hybrid incompatibilities are likely common in butterflies.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 31, 2024
  2. Abstract

    A new azimuthal anisotropy model for the North American and Caribbean Plates, namely,, is constructed based on full waveform inversion and records from the USArray and other temporary/permanent networks deployed in the study region. A total of 180 earthquakes and 4,516 seismographic stations are employed in the inversion to simultaneously constrain radially and azimuthally anisotropic model parameters:,,, and, within the crust and mantle. Thirty‐two preconditioned conjugate gradient iterations have been utilized to minimize frequency‐dependent phase discrepancies between observed and predicted seismograms for three‐component short‐period (15–40 s) body waves and long‐period (25–100 s) surface waves. Modelexhibits complicated variations in anisotropic fabrics underneath the western and eastern United States, especially at depths shallower than 100 km. For instance, the fast axis orientations in modelsuggest the presence of trench‐perpendicular mantle flows underneath the Cascadia Subduction Zone and also follow the strikes of the Snake River Plain, the Ouachita Orogenic Front, and the Grenville and Appalachian Orogenic Belts. The amplitudes of azimuthal anisotropy reduce to around 1% at depths greater than 200 km, and the orientations are subparallel to the global plate motion directions to the east of the Rocky Mountain, except for large discrepancies in central and eastern Canada. At a depth of 700 km, the fast axes change along the trajectory of the Farallon slab underneath the Great Lakes region and Gulf of Mexico, which might indicate the development of 2‐D poloidal‐mode mantle flows perpendicular to the strike of the sinking slab within the uppermost lower mantle. Comparisons between modelwith a western U.S. model from ambient noise tomography and SKS splitting measurements demonstrate a relatively good agreement for the fast axis orientations, considering the usage of different data sets and imaging techniques. However, the absolute magnitude of azimuthal anisotropy in modelmight be underestimated, especially at greater depths, given the poor agreement on the amplitudes of predicted and observed SKS splitting times. At the current stage, the agreement among different azimuthal anisotropy models at global and continental scales is still poor even for the United States with a dense station coverage.

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  3. Abstract

    To complement velocity distributions, seismic attenuation provides additional important information on fluid properties of hydrocarbon reservoirs in exploration seismology, as well as temperature distributions, partial melting, and water content within the crust and mantle in earthquake seismology. Full waveform inversion (FWI), as one of the state‐of‐the‐art seismic imaging techniques, can produce high‐resolution constraints for subsurface (an)elastic parameters by minimizing the difference between observed and predicted seismograms. Traditional waveform inversion for attenuation is commonly based on the standard‐linear‐solid (SLS) wave equation, in which case the quality factor (Q) has to be converted to stress and strain relaxation times. When using multiple attenuation mechanisms in the SLS method, it is difficult to directly estimate these relaxation time parameters. Based on a time domain complex‐valued viscoacoustic wave equation, we present an FWI framework for simultaneously estimating subsurfacePwave velocity and attenuation distributions. BecauseQis explicitly incorporated into the viscoacoustic wave equation, we directly derivePwave velocity andQsensitivity kernels using the adjoint‐state method and simultaneously estimate their subsurface distributions. By analyzing the Gauss‐Newton Hessian, we observe strong interparameter crosstalk, especially the leakage from velocity toQ. We approximate the Hessian inverse using a preconditioned L‐BFGS method in viscoacoustic FWI, which enables us to successfully reduce interparameter crosstalk and produce accurate velocity and attenuation models. Numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed method for simultaneously mapping complex velocity andQdistributions in the subsurface.

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  4. Abstract

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain intriguing circular shear wave splitting patterns in the Pacific Northwest, invoking either 2‐D entrained flows or 3‐D return flows. Here, we present some hitherto unidentified, depth‐dependent anisotropic signatures to reconcile different conceptual models. At depths shallower than 200 km, the fast propagation directions of seismic waves to the west of the Rocky Mountain are aligned sub‐parallel to the subduction direction of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Plates. This pattern is consistent with previous onshore/offshore shear wave splitting measurements and indicates that 2‐D entrained flows dominate at shallower depths. From 300 to 500 km, two large‐scale return flows are revealed, one circulating around Nevada and Colorado and the other running around the edge of the descending Juan de Fuca slab. These observations suggest the development of toroidal‐mode mantle flows, driven by the fast rollback of the narrow, fragmented Juan de Fuca and Gorda slabs.

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