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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 7, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Motivation

    Gene expression imputation has been an essential step of the single-cell RNA-Seq data analysis workflow. Among several deep-learning methods, the debut of scGNN gained substantial recognition in 2021 for its superior performance and the ability to produce a cell–cell graph. However, the implementation of scGNN was relatively time-consuming and its performance could still be optimized.

    Results

    The implementation of scGNN 2.0 is significantly faster than scGNN thanks to a simplified close-loop architecture. For all eight datasets, cell clustering performance was increased by 85.02% on average in terms of adjusted rand index, and the imputation Median L1 Error was reduced by 67.94% on average. With the built-in visualizations, users can quickly assess the imputation and cell clustering results, compare against benchmarks and interpret the cell–cell interaction. The expanded input and output formats also pave the way for custom workflows that integrate scGNN 2.0 with other scRNA-Seq toolkits on both Python and R platforms.

    Availability and implementation

    scGNN 2.0 is implemented in Python (as of version 3.8) with the source code available at https://github.com/OSU-BMBL/scGNN2.0.

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  5. Chromatin instability and protein homeostasis (proteostasis) stress are two well-established hallmarks of aging, which have been considered largely independent of each other. Using microfluidics and single-cell imaging approaches, we observed that, during the replicative aging of S. cerevisiae , a challenge to proteostasis occurs specifically in the fraction of cells with decreased stability within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). A screen of 170 yeast RNA-binding proteins identified ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-binding proteins as the most enriched group that aggregate upon a decrease in rDNA stability induced by inhibition of a conserved lysine deacetylase Sir2. Further, loss of rDNA stability induces age-dependent aggregation of rRNA-binding proteins through aberrant overproduction of rRNAs. These aggregates contribute to age-induced proteostasis decline and limit cellular lifespan. Our findings reveal a mechanism underlying the interconnection between chromatin instability and proteostasis stress and highlight the importance of cell-to-cell variability in aging processes.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 4, 2023
  6. We give a pseudorandom generator that fools m -facet polytopes over {0, 1} n with seed length polylog( m ) · log n . The previous best seed length had superlinear dependence on m .
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 30, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  8. Abstract

    Most proteins in nature contain multiple folding units (or domains). The revolutionary success of AlphaFold2 in single-domain structure prediction showed potential to extend deep-learning techniques for multi-domain structure modeling. This work presents a significantly improved method, DEMO2, which integrates analogous template structural alignments with deep-learning techniques for high-accuracy domain structure assembly. Starting from individual domain models, inter-domain spatial restraints are first predicted with deep residual convolutional networks, where full-length structure models are assembled using L-BFGS simulations under the guidance of a hybrid energy function combining deep-learning restraints and analogous multi-domain template alignments searched from the PDB. The output of DEMO2 contains deep-learning inter-domain restraints, top-ranked multi-domain structure templates, and up to five full-length structure models. DEMO2 was tested on a large-scale benchmark and the blind CASP14 experiment, where DEMO2 was shown to significantly outperform its predecessor and the state-of-the-art protein structure prediction methods. By integrating with new deep-learning techniques, DEMO2 should help fill the rapidly increasing gap between the improved ability of tertiary structure determination and the high demand for the high-quality multi-domain protein structures. The DEMO2 server is available at https://zhanggroup.org/DEMO/.

  9. Abstract

    Deep learning techniques have significantly advanced the field of protein structure prediction. LOMETS3 (https://zhanglab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/LOMETS/) is a new generation meta-server approach to template-based protein structure prediction and function annotation, which integrates newly developed deep learning threading methods. For the first time, we have extended LOMETS3 to handle multi-domain proteins and to construct full-length models with gradient-based optimizations. Starting from a FASTA-formatted sequence, LOMETS3 performs four steps of domain boundary prediction, domain-level template identification, full-length template/model assembly and structure-based function prediction. The output of LOMETS3 contains (i) top-ranked templates from LOMETS3 and its component threading programs, (ii) up to 5 full-length structure models constructed by L-BFGS (limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm) optimization, (iii) the 10 closest Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures to the target, (iv) structure-based functional predictions, (v) domain partition and assembly results, and (vi) the domain-level threading results, including items (i)–(iii) for each identified domain. LOMETS3 was tested in large-scale benchmarks and the blind CASP14 (14th Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction) experiment, where the overall template recognition and function prediction accuracy is significantly beyond its predecessors and other state-of-the-art threading approaches, especially for hard targets without homologous templates in the PDB. Based on the improved developments, LOMETS3 should help significantly advance the capabilitymore »of broader biomedical community for template-based protein structure and function modelling.

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