skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Lien, Ren-Chieh"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract Horizontal and vertical wavenumbers ( k x , k z ) immediately below the Ozmidov wavenumber ( N 3 / ε ) 1/2 are spectrally distinct from both isotropic turbulence ( k x , k z > 1 cpm) and internal waves as described by the Garrett–Munk (GM) model spectrum ( k z < 0.1 cpm). A towed CTD chain, augmented with concurrent Electromagnetic Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) profiling float microstructure measurements and shipboard ADCP surveys, are used to characterize 2D wavenumber ( k x , k z ) spectra of isopycnal slope, vertical strain, and isopycnal salinity gradient on horizontal wavelengths from 50 m to 250 km and vertical wavelengths of 2–48 m. For k z < 0.1 cpm, 2D spectra of isopycnal slope and vertical strain resemble GM. Integrated over the other wavenumber, the isopycnal slope 1D k x spectrum exhibits a roughly +1/3 slope for k x > 3 × 10 −3 cpm, and the vertical strain 1D k z spectrum a −1 slope for k z > 0.1 cpm, consistent with previous 1D measurements, numerical simulations, and anisotropic stratified turbulence theory. Isopycnal salinity gradient 1D k x spectra have a +1 slope for k xmore »> 2 × 10 −3 cpm, consistent with nonlocal stirring. Turbulent diapycnal diffusivities inferred in the (i) internal wave subrange using a vertical strain-based finescale parameterization are consistent with those inferred from finescale horizonal wavenumber spectra of (ii) isopycnal slope and (iii) isopycnal salinity gradients using Batchelor model spectra. This suggests that horizontal submesoscale and vertical finescale subranges participate in bridging the forward cascade between weakly nonlinear internal waves and isotropic turbulence, as hypothesized by anisotropic turbulence theory.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  2. Observations on the lee of a topographic ridge show that the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate due to shear instabilities is three orders of magnitude higher than the typical value in the open ocean. Laboratory-scale studies at low Reynolds number suggest that high turbulent dissipation occurs primarily within the core region of shear instabilities. However, field-scale studies indicate that high turbulence is mainly populated along the braids of shear instabilities. In this study, a high-resolution, resolving the Ozmidov-scale, non-hydrostatic model with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulent closure is applied to investigate dominant mechanisms that control the spatial and temporal scales of shear instabilities and resulting mixing in stratified shear flow at high Reynolds number. The simulated density variance dissipation rate is elevated in the cusp-like bands of shear instabilities with a specific period, consistent with the acoustic backscatter taken by shipboard echo sounder. The vertical length scale of each cusp-like band is nearly half of the vertical length scale of the internal lee wave. However, it is consistent with instabilities originating from a shear layer based on linear stability theory. The model results indicate that the length scale and/or the period of shear instabilities are the key parameters tomore »the mixing enhancement that increases with lateral Froude number Fr L , i.e. stronger shear and/or steeper ridge.« less
  3. Microstructure measurements in Drake Passage and on the flanks of Kerguelen Plateau find turbulent dissipation rates ε on average factors of 2–3 smaller than linear lee-wave generation predictions, as well as a factor of 3 smaller than the predictions of a well-established parameterization based on finescale shear and strain. Here, the possibility that these discrepancies are a result of conservation of wave action E/ ωL= E/| kU| is explored. Conservation of wave action will transfer a fraction of the lee-wave radiation back to the mean flow if the waves encounter weakening currents U, where the intrinsic or Lagrangian frequency ωL= | kU| ↓ | f| and k the along-stream horizontal wavenumber, where kU ≡ k ⋅ V. The dissipative fraction of power that is lost to turbulence depends on the Doppler shift of the intrinsic frequency between generation and breaking, hence on the topographic height spectrum and bandwidth N/ f. The partition between dissipation and loss to the mean flow is quantified for typical topographic height spectral shapes and N/ f ratios found in the abyssal ocean under the assumption that blocking is local in wavenumber. Although some fraction of lee-wave generation is always dissipated in a rotating fluid, leemore »waves are not as large a sink for balanced energy or as large a source for turbulence as previously suggested. The dissipative fraction is 0.44–0.56 for topographic spectral slopes and buoyancy frequencies typical of the deep Southern Ocean, insensitive to flow speed U and topographic splitting. Lee waves are also an important mechanism for redistributing balanced energy within their generating bottom current.

    « less
  4. The formation of a recirculating subsurface core in an internal solitary wave (ISW) of depression, shoaling over realistic bathymetry, is explored through fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic two-dimensional simulations. The computational approach is based on a high-resolution/accuracy deformed spectral multidomain penalty-method flow solver, which employs the recorded bathymetry, background current, and stratification profile in the South China Sea. The flow solver is initialized using a solution of the fully nonlinear Dubreil–Jacotin–Long equation. During shoaling, convective breaking precedes core formation as the rear steepens and the trough decelerates, allowing heavier fluid to plunge forward, forming a trapped core. This core-formation mechanism is attributed to a stretching of a near-surface background vorticity layer. Since the sign of the vorticity is opposite to that generated by the propagating wave, only subsurface recirculating cores can form. The onset of convective breaking is visualized, and the sensitivity of the core properties to changes in the initial wave, near-surface background shear, and bottom slope is quantified. The magnitude of the near-surface vorticity determines the size of the convective-breaking region, and the rapid increase of local bathymetric slope accelerates core formation. If the amplitude of the initial wave is increased, the subsequent convective-breaking region increases in size. Themore »simulations are guided by field data and capture the development of the recirculating subsurface core. The analyzed parameter space constitutes a baseline for future three-dimensional simulations focused on characterizing the turbulent flow engulfed within the convectively unstable ISW.

    « less