skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Lin, Qiang"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    Soliton microcombs are a promising new approach for photonic-based microwave signal synthesis. To date, however, the tuning rate has been limited in microcombs. Here, we demonstrate the first microwave-rate soliton microcomb whose repetition rate can be tuned at a high speed. By integrating an electro-optic modulation element into a lithium niobate comb microresonator, a modulation bandwidth up to 75 MHz and a continuous frequency modulation rate up to 5.0 × 1014Hz/s are achieved, several orders-of-magnitude faster than existing microcomb technology. The device offers a significant bandwidth of up to tens of gigahertz for locking the repetition rate to an external microwave reference, enabling both direct injection locking and feedback locking to the comb resonator itself without involving external modulation. These features are especially useful for disciplining an optical voltage-controlled oscillator to a long-term reference and the demonstrated fast repetition rate control is expected to have a profound impact on all applications of frequency combs.

    more » « less
  2. BACKGROUND Electromagnetic (EM) waves underpin modern society in profound ways. They are used to carry information, enabling broadcast radio and television, mobile telecommunications, and ubiquitous access to data networks through Wi-Fi and form the backbone of our modern broadband internet through optical fibers. In fundamental physics, EM waves serve as an invaluable tool to probe objects from cosmic to atomic scales. For example, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and atomic clocks, which are some of the most precise human-made instruments in the world, rely on EM waves to reach unprecedented accuracies. This has motivated decades of research to develop coherent EM sources over broad spectral ranges with impressive results: Frequencies in the range of tens of gigahertz (radio and microwave regimes) can readily be generated by electronic oscillators. Resonant tunneling diodes enable the generation of millimeter (mm) and terahertz (THz) waves, which span from tens of gigahertz to a few terahertz. At even higher frequencies, up to the petahertz level, which are usually defined as optical frequencies, coherent waves can be generated by solid-state and gas lasers. However, these approaches often suffer from narrow spectral bandwidths, because they usually rely on well-defined energy states of specific materials, which results in a rather limited spectral coverage. To overcome this limitation, nonlinear frequency-mixing strategies have been developed. These approaches shift the complexity from the EM source to nonresonant-based material effects. Particularly in the optical regime, a wealth of materials exist that support effects that are suitable for frequency mixing. Over the past two decades, the idea of manipulating these materials to form guiding structures (waveguides) has provided improvements in efficiency, miniaturization, and production scale and cost and has been widely implemented for diverse applications. ADVANCES Lithium niobate, a crystal that was first grown in 1949, is a particularly attractive photonic material for frequency mixing because of its favorable material properties. Bulk lithium niobate crystals and weakly confining waveguides have been used for decades for accessing different parts of the EM spectrum, from gigahertz to petahertz frequencies. Now, this material is experiencing renewed interest owing to the commercial availability of thin-film lithium niobate (TFLN). This integrated photonic material platform enables tight mode confinement, which results in frequency-mixing efficiency improvements by orders of magnitude while at the same time offering additional degrees of freedom for engineering the optical properties by using approaches such as dispersion engineering. Importantly, the large refractive index contrast of TFLN enables, for the first time, the realization of lithium niobate–based photonic integrated circuits on a wafer scale. OUTLOOK The broad spectral coverage, ultralow power requirements, and flexibilities of lithium niobate photonics in EM wave generation provides a large toolset to explore new device functionalities. Furthermore, the adoption of lithium niobate–integrated photonics in foundries is a promising approach to miniaturize essential bench-top optical systems using wafer scale production. Heterogeneous integration of active materials with lithium niobate has the potential to create integrated photonic circuits with rich functionalities. Applications such as high-speed communications, scalable quantum computing, artificial intelligence and neuromorphic computing, and compact optical clocks for satellites and precision sensing are expected to particularly benefit from these advances and provide a wealth of opportunities for commercial exploration. Also, bulk crystals and weakly confining waveguides in lithium niobate are expected to keep playing a crucial role in the near future because of their advantages in high-power and loss-sensitive quantum optics applications. As such, lithium niobate photonics holds great promise for unlocking the EM spectrum and reshaping information technologies for our society in the future. Lithium niobate spectral coverage. The EM spectral range and processes for generating EM frequencies when using lithium niobate (LN) for frequency mixing. AO, acousto-optic; AOM, acousto-optic modulation; χ (2) , second-order nonlinearity; χ (3) , third-order nonlinearity; EO, electro-optic; EOM, electro-optic modulation; HHG, high-harmonic generation; IR, infrared; OFC, optical frequency comb; OPO, optical paramedic oscillator; OR, optical rectification; SCG, supercontinuum generation; SHG, second-harmonic generation; UV, ultraviolet. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    The development of integrated semiconductor lasers has miniaturized traditional bulky laser systems, enabling a wide range of photonic applications. A progression from pure III-V based lasers to III-V/external cavity structures has harnessed low-loss waveguides in different material systems, leading to significant improvements in laser coherence and stability. Despite these successes, however, key functions remain absent. In this work, we address a critical missing function by integrating the Pockels effect into a semiconductor laser. Using a hybrid integrated III-V/Lithium Niobate structure, we demonstrate several essential capabilities that have not existed in previous integrated lasers. These include a record-high frequency modulation speed of 2 exahertz/s (2.0 × 1018Hz/s) and fast switching at 50 MHz, both of which are made possible by integration of the electro-optic effect. Moreover, the device co-lases at infrared and visible frequencies via the second-harmonic frequency conversion process, the first such integrated multi-color laser. Combined with its narrow linewidth and wide tunability, this new type of integrated laser holds promise for many applications including LiDAR, microwave photonics, atomic physics, and AR/VR.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Modern advanced photonic integrated circuits require dense integration of high-speed electro-optic functional elements on a compact chip that consumes only moderate power. Energy efficiency, operation speed, and device dimension are thus crucial metrics underlying almost all current developments of photonic signal processing units. Recently, thin-film lithium niobate (LN) emerges as a promising platform for photonic integrated circuits. Here, we make an important step towards miniaturizing functional components on this platform, reporting high-speed LN electro-optic modulators, based upon photonic crystal nanobeam resonators. The devices exhibit a significant tuning efficiency up to 1.98 GHz V−1, a broad modulation bandwidth of 17.5 GHz, while with a tiny electro-optic modal volume of only 0.58μm3. The modulators enable efficient electro-optic driving of high-Q photonic cavity modes in both adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes, and allow us to achieve electro-optic switching at 11 Gb s−1with a bit-switching energy as low as 22 fJ. The demonstration of energy efficient and high-speed electro-optic modulation at the wavelength scale paves a crucial foundation for realizing large-scale LN photonic integrated circuits that are of immense importance for broad applications in data communication, microwave photonics, and quantum photonics.

    more » « less
  5. Lithium niobate (LN), possessing wide transparent window, strong electro-optic effect, and large optical nonlinearity, is an ideal material platform for integrated photonics application. Microring resonators are particularly suitable as integrated photonic components, given their flexibility of device engineering and their potential for large-scale integration. However, the susceptibility to temperature fluctuation has become a major challenge for their implementation in a practical environment. Here, we demonstrate an athermal LN microring resonator. By cladding an x-cut LN microring resonator with a thin layer of titanium oxide, we are able to completely eliminate the first-order thermo-optic coefficient (TOC) of cavity resonance right at room temperature (20°C), leaving only a small residual quadratic temperature dependence with a second-order TOC of only 0.37 pm/K2. It corresponds to a temperature-induced resonance wavelength shift within 0.33 nm over a large operating temperature range of (−10 – 50)°C that is one order of magnitude smaller than a bare LN microring resonator. Moreover, the TiO2-cladded LN microring resonator is able to preserve high optical quality, with an intrinsic optical Q of 5.8 × 105that is only about 11% smaller than that of a bare LN resonator. The flexibility of thermo-optic engineering, high optical quality, and device fabrication compatibility show great promise of athermal LN/TiO2hybrid devices for practical applications, elevating the potential importance of LN photonic integrated circuits for future communication, sensing, nonlinear and quantum photonics.

    more » « less
  6. High-fidelity periodic poling over long lengths is required for robust, quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation using the fundamental, quasi-TE polarized waveguide modes in a thin-film lithium niobate (TFLN) waveguide. Here, a shallow-etched ridge waveguide is fabricated in x-cut magnesium oxide doped TFLN and is poled accurately over 5 mm. The high fidelity of the poling is demonstrated over long lengths using a non-destructive technique of confocal scanning second-harmonic microscopy. We report a second-harmonic conversion efficiency of up to 939 %.W−1(length-normalized conversion efficiency 3757 %.W−−2), measured at telecommunications wavelengths. The device demonstrates a narrow spectral linewidth (1 nm) and can be tuned precisely with a tuning characteristic of 0.1 nm/°C, over at least 40 °C without measurable loss of efficiency.

    more » « less
  7. Abstract

    Many technologies emerging from quantum information science heavily rely upon the generation and manipulation of entangled quantum states. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new class of quantum interference phenomena that arise when states are created in and coherently converted between the propagating modes of an optical microcavity. The modal coupling introduces several new creation pathways to a nonlinear optical process within the device, which quantum mechanically interfere to drive the system between states in the time domain. The coherent conversion entangles the generated biphotons between propagation pathways, leading to cyclically evolving path-entanglement and the manifestation of coherent oscillations in second-order temporal correlations. Furthermore, the rich device physics is harnessed to tune properties of the quantum states. In particular, we show that the strength of interference between pathways can be coherently controlled, allowing for manipulation of the degree of entanglement, which can even be entirely quenched. The states can likewise be made to flip-flop between exhibiting initially correlated or uncorrelated behavior. The phenomena presented here open a route to creating higher dimensional entanglement and exotic multi-photon states.

    more » « less
  8. Abstract

    Photonic sensors based upon high‐quality microcavities have found a wide variety of applications ranging from inertial sensing, electro‐ and magnetometry to chemical and biological sensing. These sensors have a dynamic range limited by the linewidth of the cavity mode transducing the input. This dynamic range not only determines the range of the signal strength that can be detected, but also affects the resilience of the sensor against large deteriorating external perturbations and shocks in a practical environment. Unfortunately, there is a general trade‐off between the detection sensitivity and the dynamic range, which undermines the performance of all microcavity‐based sensors. Here, an approach is proposed to extend the dynamic range significantly beyond the cavity linewidth limit by exploiting the periodic nature of the modulation signal, making measurements in the nonlinear transduction regime without degrading the detection sensitivity for weak signals. With a cavity optomechanical system, a dynamic range of over six times larger than the cavity linewidth is experimentally demonstrated, far beyond the conventional linear region of operation for such a sensor. This approach will help design microcavity‐based sensors to achieve high detection sensitivity and a large dynamic range at the same time, a crucial property for their use in a practical environment.

    more » « less