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  1. It is appealing but challenging to achieve real-time deep neural network (DNN) inference on mobile devices because even the powerful modern mobile devices are considered “resource-constrained” when executing large-scale DNNs. It necessitates the sparse model inference via weight pruning, i.e., DNN weight sparsity, and it is desirable to design a new DNN weight sparsity scheme that can facilitate real-time inference on mobile devices while preserving a high sparse model accuracy. This paper designs a novel mobile inference acceleration framework GRIM that is General to both convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and that achieves Real-time execution and high accuracy, leveraging fine-grained structured sparse model Inference and compiler optimizations for Mobiles. We start by proposing a new fine-grained structured sparsity scheme through the Block-based Column-Row (BCR) pruning. Based on this new fine-grained structured sparsity, our GRIM framework consists of two parts: (a) the compiler optimization and code generation for real-time mobile inference; and (b) the BCR pruning optimizations for determining pruning hyperparameters and performing weight pruning. We compare GRIM with Alibaba MNN, TVM, TensorFlow-Lite, a sparse implementation based on CSR, PatDNN, and ESE (a representative FPGA inference acceleration framework for RNNs), and achieve up to 14.08× speedup.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  2. Weight pruning is an effective model compression technique to tackle the challenges of achieving real-time deep neural network (DNN) inference on mobile devices. However, prior pruning schemes have limited application scenarios due to accuracy degradation, difficulty in leveraging hardware acceleration, and/or restriction on certain types of DNN layers. In this article, we propose a general, fine-grained structured pruning scheme and corresponding compiler optimizations that are applicable to any type of DNN layer while achieving high accuracy and hardware inference performance. With the flexibility of applying different pruning schemes to different layers enabled by our compiler optimizations, we further probe into the new problem of determining the best-suited pruning scheme considering the different acceleration and accuracy performance of various pruning schemes. Two pruning scheme mapping methods—one -search based and the other is rule based—are proposed to automatically derive the best-suited pruning regularity and block size for each layer of any given DNN. Experimental results demonstrate that our pruning scheme mapping methods, together with the general fine-grained structured pruning scheme, outperform the state-of-the-art DNN optimization framework with up to 2.48 \( \times \) and 1.73 \( \times \) DNN inference acceleration on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet datasets without accuracy loss.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 30, 2023
  3. Neural architecture search (NAS) and network pruning are widely studied efficient AI techniques, but not yet perfect.NAS performs exhaustive candidate architecture search, incurring tremendous search cost.Though (structured) pruning can simply shrink model dimension, it remains unclear how to decide the per-layer sparsity automatically and optimally.In this work, we revisit the problem of layer-width optimization and propose Pruning-as-Search (PaS), an end-to-end channel pruning method to search out desired sub-network automatically and efficiently.Specifically, we add a depth-wise binary convolution to learn pruning policies directly through gradient descent.By combining the structural reparameterization and PaS, we successfully searched out a new family of VGG-like and lightweight networks, which enable the flexibility of arbitrary width with respect to each layer instead of each stage.Experimental results show that our proposed architecture outperforms prior arts by around 1.0% top-1 accuracy under similar inference speed on ImageNet-1000 classification task.Furthermore, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our width search on complex tasks including instance segmentation and image translation.Code and models are released.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  4. Adversarial perturbations are critical for certifying the robustness of deep learning models. A ``universal adversarial perturbation'' (UAP) can simultaneously attack multiple images, and thus offers a more unified threat model, obviating an image-wise attack algorithm. However, the existing UAP generator is underdeveloped when images are drawn from different image sources (e.g., with different image resolutions). Towards an authentic universality across image sources, we take a novel view of UAP generation as a customized instance of ``few-shot learning'', which leverages bilevel optimization and learning-to-optimize (L2O) techniques for UAP generation with improved attack success rate (ASR). We begin by considering the popular model agnostic meta-learning (MAML) framework to meta-learn a UAP generator. However, we see that the MAML framework does not directly offer the universal attack across image sources, requiring us to integrate it with another meta-learning framework of L2O. The resulting scheme for meta-learning a UAP generator (i) has better performance (50% higher ASR) than baselines such as Projected Gradient Descent, (ii) has better performance (37% faster) than the vanilla L2O and MAML frameworks (when applicable), and (iii) is able to simultaneously handle UAP generation for different victim models and data sources.

    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 5, 2022
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  9. Efficient deployment of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) on edge devices (i.e., FPGAs and mobile platforms) is very challenging, especially under a recent witness of the increasing DNN model size and complexity. Model compression strategies, including weight quantization and pruning, are widely recognized as effective approaches to significantly reduce computation and memory intensities, and have been implemented in many DNNs on edge devices. However, most state-of-the-art works focus on ad-hoc optimizations, and there lacks a thorough study to comprehensively reveal the potentials and constraints of different edge devices when considering different compression strategies. In this paper, we qualitatively and quantitatively compare the energy efficiency of FPGA-based and mobile-based DNN executions using mobile GPU and provide a detailed analysis. Based on the observations obtained from the analysis, we propose a unified optimization framework using block-based pruning to reduce the weight storage and accelerate the inference speed on mobile devices and FPGAs, achieving high hardware performance and energy-efficiency gain while maintaining accuracy.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  10. This paper proposes Characteristic Examples for effectively fingerprinting deep neural networks, featuring high-robustness to the base model against model pruning as well as low-transferability to unassociated models. This is the first work taking both robustness and transferability into consideration for generating realistic fingerprints, whereas current methods lack practical assumptions and may incur large false positive rates. To achieve better trade-off between robustness and transferability, we propose three kinds of characteristic examples: vanilla C-examples, RC-examples, and LTRC-example, to derive fingerprints from the original base model. To fairly characterize the trade-off between robustness and transferability, we propose Uniqueness Score, a comprehensive metric that measures the difference between robustness and transferability, which also serves as an indicator to the false alarm problem. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed characteristic examples can achieve superior performance when compared with existing fingerprinting methods. In particular, for VGG ImageNet models, using LTRC-examples gives 4X higher uniqueness score than the baseline method and does not incur any false positives.