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  1. Throughout communities and ecosystems both within and downstream of mountain forests, there is an increasing risk of wildfire. After a wildfire, stakeholder management will vary depending on the rate and spatial heterogeneity of forest re-establishment. However, forest re-establishment and recovery after a wildfire is closely linked to interactions between the temporal evolution of plant-available water (PAW) and spatial patterns in available energy. Therefore, we propose a conceptual model that describes spatial heterogeneity in long-term watershed recovery rate as a function of topographically-mediated interactions between available energy and the movement of water in the subsurface (i.e. subsurface hydrologic redistribution). As vegetation becomes re-established across a burned landscape in response to topographic and subsurface controls on water and energy, canopies shade the ground surface and reduce wind speed creating positive feedbacks that increase PAW. Furthermore, slope aspect differentially impacts the spatial patterns in regrowth and re-establishment. South aspect slopes receive high solar radiation, and consequently are warmer and drier, with lower standing biomass and greater drought stress and mortality compared to north aspect slopes. To date, most assessments of these impacts have taken a bulk approach, or an implicitly one-dimensional conceptual approach that does not include spatial heterogeneity in hydroclimate influenced by topography and vegetation. The presented conceptual model sets a starting point to further our understanding of the spatio-temporal evolution of PAW storage, energy availability, and vegetation re-establishment and survival in forested catchments after a wildfire. The model also provides a template for collaboration with diverse stakeholders to aid the co-production of next generation management tools to mitigate the negative impacts of future wildfires. 
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  2. Abstract

    We examined the seasonality of photosynthesis in 46 evergreen needleleaf (evergreen needleleaf forests (ENF)) and deciduous broadleaf (deciduous broadleaf forests (DBF)) forests across North America and Eurasia. We quantified the onset and end (StartGPPand EndGPP) of photosynthesis in spring and autumn based on the response of net ecosystem exchange of CO2to sunlight. To test the hypothesis that snowmelt is required for photosynthesis to begin, these were compared with end of snowmelt derived from soil temperature. ENF forests achieved 10% of summer photosynthetic capacity ∼3 weeks before end of snowmelt, while DBF forests achieved that capacity ∼4 weeks afterward. DBF forests increased photosynthetic capacity in spring faster (1.95% d−1) than ENF (1.10% d−1), and their active season length (EndGPP–StartGPP) was ∼50 days shorter. We hypothesized that warming has influenced timing of the photosynthesis season. We found minimal evidence for long‐term change in StartGPP, EndGPP, or air temperature, but their interannual anomalies were significantly correlated. Warmer weather was associated with earlier StartGPP(1.3–2.5 days °C−1) or later EndGPP(1.5–1.8 days °C−1, depending on forest type and month). Finally, we tested whether existing phenological models could predict StartGPPand EndGPP. For ENF forests, air temperature‐ and daylength‐based models provided best predictions for StartGPP, while a chilling‐degree‐day model was best for EndGPP. The root mean square errors (RMSE) between predicted and observed StartGPPand EndGPPwere 11.7 and 11.3 days, respectively. For DBF forests, temperature‐ and daylength‐based models yielded the best results (RMSE 6.3 and 10.5 days).

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  3. Eddy covariance serves as one the most effective techniques for long-term monitoring of ecosystem fluxes, however long-term data integrations rely on complete timeseries, meaning that any gaps due to missing data must be reliably filled. To date, many gap-filling approaches have been proposed and extensively evaluated for mature and/or less actively managed ecosystems. Random forest regression (RFR) has been shown to be stable and perform better in these systems than alternative approaches, particularly when filling longer gaps. However, the performance of RFR gap filling remains less certain in more challenging ecosystems, e.g., actively managed agri-ecosystems and following recent land-use change due to management disturbances, ecosystems with relatively low fluxes due to low signal to noise ratios, or for trace gases other than carbon dioxide (e.g., methane). In an extension to earlier work on gap filling global carbon dioxide, water, and energy fluxes, we assess the RFR approach for gap filling methane fluxes globally. We then investigate a range of gap-filling methodologies for carbon dioxide, water, energy, and methane fluxes in challenging ecosystems, including European managed pastures, Southeast Asian converted peatlands, and North American drylands. Our findings indicate that RFR is a competent alternative to existing research standard gap-filling algorithms. The marginal distribution sampling (MDS) is still suggested for filling short (< 12 days) gaps in carbon dioxide fluxes, but RFR is better for filling longer (> 30 days) gaps in carbon dioxide fluxes and also for gap filling other fluxes (e.g. sensible heat, latent energy and methane). In addition, using RFR with globally available reanalysis environmental drivers is effective when measured drivers are unavailable. Crucially, RFR was able to reliably fill cumulative fluxes for gaps > 3 moths and, unlike other common approaches, key environment-flux responses were preserved in the gap-filled data. 
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  4. null (Ed.)