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  1. Abstract Pinus edulis Engelm. is a short-stature, drought-tolerant tree species that is abundant in piñon-juniper woodlands throughout semiarid ecosystems of the American Southwest. P. edulis is a model species among ecophysiological disciplines, with considerable research focus given to hydraulic functioning and carbon partitioning relating to mechanisms of tree mortality. Many ecological studies require robust estimates of tree structural traits such as biomass, active sapwood area, and leaf area. We harvested twenty trees from Central New Mexico ranging in size from 1.3 to 22.7 cm root crown diameter (RCD) to derive allometric relationships from measurements of RCD, maximum height, canopy area (CA), aboveground biomass (AGB), sapwood area (AS), and leaf area (AL). Total foliar mass was measured from a subset of individuals and scaled to AL from estimates of leaf mass per area. We report a strong nonlinear relationship to AGB as a function of both RCD and height, whereas CA scaled linearly. Total AS expressed a power relationship with RCD. Both AS and CA exhibited strong linear relationships with AL (R2 = 0.99), whereas RCD increased nonlinearly with AL. We improve on current models by expanding the size range of sampled trees and supplement the existing literature for this species.more »Study Implications: Land managers need to better understand carbon and water dynamics in changing ecosystems to understand how those ecosystems can be sustainably used now and in the future. This study of two-needle pinon (Pinus edulis Engelm.) trees in New Mexico, USA, uses observations from unoccupied aerial vehicles, field measurements, and harvesting followed by laboratory analysis to develop allometric models for this widespread species. These models can be used to understand plant traits such biomass partitioning and sap flow, which in turn will help scientists and land managers better understand the ecosystem services provided by pinon pine across North America.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 30, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Despite their sparse vegetation, dryland regions exert a huge influence over global biogeochemical cycles because they cover more than 40% of the world surface (Schimel 2010 Science 327 418–9). It is thought that drylands dominate the inter-annual variability (IAV) and long-term trend in the global carbon (C) cycle (Poulter et al 2014 Nature 509 600–3, Ahlstrom et al 2015 Science 348 895–9, Zhang et al 2018 Glob. Change Biol . 24 3954–68). Projections of the global land C sink therefore rely on accurate representation of dryland C cycle processes; however, the dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) used in future projections have rarely been evaluated against dryland C flux data. Here, we carried out an evaluation of 14 DGVMs (TRENDY v7) against net ecosystem exchange (NEE) data from 12 dryland flux sites in the southwestern US encompassing a range of ecosystem types (forests, shrub- and grasslands). We find that all the models underestimate both mean annual C uptake/release as well as the magnitude of NEE IAV, suggesting that improvements in representing dryland regions may improve global C cycle projections. Across all models, the sensitivity and timing of ecosystem C uptake to plant available moisture was at fault. Spring biases inmore »gross primary production (GPP) dominate the underestimate of mean annual NEE, whereas models’ lack of GPP response to water availability in both spring and summer monsoon are responsible for inability to capture NEE IAV. Errors in GPP moisture sensitivity at high elevation forested sites were more prominent during the spring, while errors at the low elevation shrub and grass-dominated sites were more important during the monsoon. We propose a range of hypotheses for why model GPP does not respond sufficiently to changing water availability that can serve as a guide for future dryland DGVM developments. Our analysis suggests that improvements in modeling C cycle processes across more than a quarter of the Earth’s land surface could be achieved by addressing the moisture sensitivity of dryland C uptake.« less