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  1. Abstract

    We investigate the exciton complexes photoluminescence, dynamics, and photon statistics in the concurrent strong-weak coupling regimes in site-controlled single inverted pyramidal InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots–photonic crystal cavities platform. Different from a clear boundary between strong and weak QD-cavity coupling, we demonstrate that strong and weak coupling can coexist dynamically, as a form of unique intermediate regime mediated by phonon scattering. The cavity-exciton detuning-dependent micro-photoluminescence spectrum reveals concurrence of a trend of exciton–cavity polariton mode avoided crossing, as a signature of Rabi doublet of the strong coupled system. Meanwhile, a trend of keeping constant or slight blue shift of coupled exciton–cavity mode energy across zero-detuning is ascribed to the formation of collective states mediated by phonon assisted coupling, and their rare partial out-of-synchronization linewidth-narrowing is linked to their coexisting strong-weak coupling regime. We further reveal the pump power dependent anti-bunching photon statistical dynamics of this coexisting strong-weak intermediate coupled system, and the distinct optical features of strongly confined exciton-photon complexes, and dark-exciton-like states. These observations on the coexisting strong-weak regime provide insights of site-controlled cavity quantum electrodynamics for deterministic single- and bi-photon sources, quantum memories and repeaters, and mesoscopic quantum information processing.

  2. Quantum light sources play a fundamental role in quantum technologies ranging from quantum networking to quantum sensing and computation. The development of these technologies requires scalable platforms, and the recent discovery of quantum light sources in silicon represents an exciting and promising prospect for scalability. The usual process for creating color centers in silicon involves carbon implantation into silicon, followed by rapid thermal annealing. However, the dependence of critical optical properties, such as the inhomogeneous broadening, the density, and the signal-to-background ratio, on centers implantation steps is poorly understood. We investigate the role of rapid thermal annealing on the dynamic of the formation of single color centers in silicon. We find that the density and the inhomogeneous broadening greatly depend on the annealing time. We attribute the observations to nanoscale thermal processes occurring around single centers and leading to local strain fluctuations. Our experimental observation is supported by theoretical modeling based on first principles calculations. The results indicate that annealing is currently the main step limiting the scalable manufacturing of color centers in silicon.

  3. Abstract

    Spinal motor neurons (MNs) integrate sensory stimuli and brain commands to generate movements. In vertebrates, the molecular identities of the cardinal MN types such as those innervating limb versus trunk muscles are well elucidated. Yet the identities of finer subtypes within these cell populations that innervate individual muscle groups remain enigmatic. Here we investigate heterogeneity in mouse MNs using single-cell transcriptomics. Among limb-innervating MNs, we reveal a diverse neuropeptide code for delineating putative motor pool identities. Additionally, we uncover that axial MNs are subdivided into three molecularly distinct subtypes, defined by mediolaterally-biased Satb2, Nr2f2 or Bcl11b expression patterns with different axon guidance signatures. These three subtypes are present in chicken and human embryos, suggesting a conserved axial MN expression pattern across higher vertebrates. Overall, our study provides a molecular resource of spinal MN types and paves the way towards deciphering how neuronal subtypes evolved to accommodate vertebrate motor behaviors.

  4. Farha, Omar (Ed.)
    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are advanced platforms for enzyme immobilization. Enzymes can be entrapped via either diffusion (into pre-formed MOFs) or co-crystallization. Enzyme co-crystallization with specific metals/ligands in the aqueous phase, also known as biomineralization, minimizes the enzyme loss as compared to organic phase co-crystallization, removes the size limitation on enzymes and substrates, and can potentially broaden the application of enzyme@MOF composites. However, not all enzymes are stable/functional in the presence of excess metal ions and/or ligands currently available for co-crystallization. Furthermore, most current biomineralization-based MOFs have limited (acid-) pH stability, making it necessary to explore other metal-ligand combinations that can also immobilize enzymes. Here, we report our discovery on the combination of five metal ions and two ligands that can form biocomposites with two model enzymes differing in size and hydrophobicity in the aqueous phase under ambient conditions. Surprisingly, most of the formed composites are single- or multi- phase crystals even though the reaction phase is aqueous, with the rest as amorphous powders. All 20 enzyme@MOF composites showed good to excellent reusability, and were stable under weakly acidic pHs. The stability under weakly basic conditions depended on the selection of enzyme and metal-ligand combinations, yet for both enzymes, 3-4 MOFsmore »offered decent stability under basic conditions. This work initiates the expansion of the current “library” of metal-ligand selection for encapsulating/biomineralizing large enzymes/enzyme clusters, leading to customized encapsulation of enzymes according to enzymes stability, functionality, and optimal pH.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  5. Anthropogenic surface warming dominates and drives a global acceleration of the upper ocean currents in a warmer climate.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 22, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  7. Short-pulse ion beams have been developed in recent years and now enable applications in materials science. A tunable flux of selected ions delivered in pulses of a few nanoseconds can affect the balance of defect formation and dynamic annealing in materials. We report results from color center formation in silicon with pulses of 900 keV protons. G-centers in silicon are near-infrared photon emitters with emerging applications as single-photon sources and for spin-photon qubit integration. G-centers consist of a pair of substitutional carbon atoms and one silicon interstitial atom and are often formed by carbon ion implantation and thermal annealing. Here, we report on G-center formation with proton pulses in silicon samples that already contained carbon, without carbon ion implantation or thermal annealing. The number of G-centers formed per proton increased when we increased the pulse intensity from 6.9 × 109 to 7.9 × 1010 protons/cm2/pulse, demonstrating a flux effect on G-center formation efficiency. We observe a G-center ensemble linewidth of 0.1 nm (full width half maximum), narrower than previously reported. Pulsed ion beams can extend the parameter range available for fundamental studies of radiation-induced defects and the formation of color centers for spin-photon qubit applications.