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  1. In this work, we take a first step towards designing summarization systems that are faithful to the author’s intent, not only the semantic content of the article. Focusing on a case study of preserving political perspectives in news summarization, we find that existing approaches alter the political opinions and stances of news articles in more than 50% of summaries, misrepresenting the intent and perspectives of the news authors. We thus propose P3Sum, a diffusion model-based summarization approach controlled by political perspective classifiers. In P3Sum, the political leaning of a generated summary is iteratively evaluated at each decoding step, and any drift from the article’s original stance incurs a loss back-propagated to the embedding layers, steering the political stance of the summary at inference time. Extensive experiments on three news summarization datasets demonstrate that P3Sum outperforms state-of-the-art summarization systems and large language models by up to 13.7% in terms of the success rate of stance preservation, with competitive performance on standard metrics of summarization quality. Our findings present a first analysis of preservation of pragmatic features in summarization, highlight the lacunae in existing summarization models—that even state-of-the-art models often struggle to preserve author’s intents—and develop new summarization systems that are more faithful to author’s perspectives. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 28, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  3. Numerical simulations have revolutionized material design. However, although simulations excel at mapping an input material to its output property, their direct application to inverse design has traditionally been limited by their high computing cost and lack of differentiability. Here, taking the example of the inverse design of a porous matrix featuring targeted sorption isotherm, we introduce a computational inverse design framework that addresses these challenges, by programming differentiable simulation on TensorFlow platform that leverages automated end-to-end differentiation. Thanks to its differentiability, the simulation is used to directly train a deep generative model, which outputs an optimal porous matrix based on an arbitrary input sorption isotherm curve. Importantly, this inverse design pipeline leverages the power of tensor processing units (TPU)—an emerging family of dedicated chips, which, although they are specialized in deep learning, are flexible enough for intensive scientific simulations. This approach holds promise to accelerate inverse materials design. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  4. Language models (LMs) are pretrained on diverse data sources—news, discussion forums, books, online encyclopedias. A significant portion of this data includes facts and opinions which, on one hand, celebrate democracy and diversity of ideas, and on the other hand are inherently socially biased. Our work develops new methods to (1) measure media biases in LMs trained on such corpora, along social and economic axes, and (2) measure the fairness of downstream NLP models trained on top of politically biased LMs. We focus on hate speech and misinformation detection, aiming to empirically quantify the effects of political (social, economic) biases in pretraining data on the fairness of high-stakes social-oriented tasks. Our findings reveal that pretrained LMs do have political leanings which reinforce the polarization present in pretraining corpora, propagating social biases into hate speech predictions and media biases into misinformation detectors. We discuss the implications of our findings for NLP research and propose future directions to mitigate unfairness. 
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  5. Ruiz, Francisco ; Dy, Jennifer ; van de Meent, Jan-Willem (Ed.)
    We study discrete distribution estimation under user-level local differential privacy (LDP). In user-level $\varepsilon$-LDP, each user has $m\ge1$ samples and the privacy of all $m$ samples must be preserved simultaneously. We resolve the following dilemma: While on the one hand having more samples per user should provide more information about the underlying distribution, on the other hand, guaranteeing the privacy of all $m$ samples should make the estimation task more difficult. We obtain tight bounds for this problem under almost all parameter regimes. Perhaps surprisingly, we show that in suitable parameter regimes, having $m$ samples per user is equivalent to having $m$ times more users, each with only one sample. Our results demonstrate interesting phase transitions for $m$ and the privacy parameter $\varepsilon$ in the estimation risk. Finally, connecting with recent results on shuffled DP, we show that combined with random shuffling, our algorithm leads to optimal error guarantees (up to logarithmic factors) under the central model of user-level DP in certain parameter regimes. We provide several simulations to verify our theoretical findings. 
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