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  1. Multiferroic materials are an interesting functional material family combining two ferroic orderings, e.g. , ferroelectric and ferromagnetic orderings, or ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic orderings, and find various device applications, such as spintronics, multiferroic tunnel junctions, etc. Coupling multiferroic materials with plasmonic nanostructures offers great potential for optical-based switching in these devices. Here, we report a novel nanocomposite system consisting of layered Bi 1.25 AlMnO 3.25 (BAMO) as a multiferroic matrix and well dispersed plasmonic Au nanoparticles (NPs) and demonstrate that the Au nanoparticle morphology and the nanocomposite properties can be effectively tuned. Specifically, the Au particle size can be tuned from 6.82 nm to 31.59 nm and the 6.82 nm one presents the optimum ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties and plasmonic properties. Besides the room temperature multiferroic properties, the BAMO-Au nanocomposite system presents other unique functionalities including localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), hyperbolicity in the visible region, and magneto-optical coupling, which can all be effectively tailored through morphology tuning. This study demonstrates the feasibility of coupling single phase multiferroic oxides with plasmonic metals for complex nanocomposite designs towards optically switchable spintronics and other memory devices.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 15, 2023
  2. Abstract

    Multiferroic materials have generated great interest due to their potential as functional device materials. Nanocomposites have been increasingly used to design and generate new functionalities by pairing dissimilar ferroic materials, though the combination often introduces new complexity and challenges unforeseeable in single-phase counterparts. The recently developed approaches to fabricate 3D super-nanocomposites (3D‐sNC) open new avenues to control and enhance functional properties. In this work, we develop a new 3D‐sNC with CoFe2O4(CFO) short nanopillar arrays embedded in BaTiO3(BTO) film matrix via microstructure engineering by alternatively depositing BTO:CFO vertically-aligned nanocomposite layers and single-phase BTO layers. This microstructure engineering method allows encapsulating the relative conducting CFO phase by the insulating BTO phase, which suppress the leakage current and enhance the polarization. Our results demonstrate that microstructure engineering in 3D‐sNC offers a new bottom–up method of fabricating advanced nanostructures with a wide range of possible configurations for applications where the functional properties need to be systematically modified.

  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  4. Abstract

    High-spectral-purity frequency-agile room-temperature sources in the terahertz spectrum are foundational elements for imaging, sensing, metrology, and communications. Here we present a chip-scale optical parametric oscillator based on an integrated nonlinear microresonator that provides broadly tunable single-frequency and multi-frequency oscillators in the terahertz regime. Through optical-to-terahertz down-conversion using a plasmonic nanoantenna array, coherent terahertz radiation spanning 2.8-octaves is achieved from 330 GHz to 2.3 THz, with ≈20 GHz cavity-mode-limited frequency tuning step and ≈10 MHz intracavity-mode continuous frequency tuning range at each step. By controlling the microresonator intracavity power and pump-resonance detuning, tunable multi-frequency terahertz oscillators are also realized. Furthermore, by stabilizing the microresonator pump power and wavelength, sub-100 Hz linewidth of the terahertz radiation with 10−15residual frequency instability is demonstrated. The room-temperature generation of both single-frequency, frequency-agile terahertz radiation and multi-frequency terahertz oscillators in the chip-scale platform offers unique capabilities in metrology, sensing, imaging and communications.

  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  6. Abstract

    Pure molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) solid lubricant coatings could attain densities comparable to doped films (and the associated benefits to wear rate and environmental stability) through manipulation of the microstructure via deposition parameters. Unfortunately, pure films can exhibit highly variable microstructures and mechanical properties due to processes that are not controlled during deposition (i.e., batch-to-batch variation). This work focuses on developing a relationship between density, hardness, friction, and wear for pure sputtered MoS2coatings. Results show that dense films (ρ = 4.5 g/cm3) exhibit a 100 × lower wear rate compared to porous coatings (ρ = 3.04–3.55 g/cm3). The tribological performance of high density pure MoS2coatings is shown to surpass that of established composite coatings, achieving a wear rate 2 × (k = 5.74 × 10–8mm3/Nm) lower than composite MoS2/Sb2O3/Au in inert environments.

  7. Two-dimensional (2D) materials with robust ferromagnetic behavior have attracted great interest because of their potential applications in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. Aside from graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, Bi-based layered oxide materials are a group of prospective candidates due to their superior room-temperature multiferroic response. Here, an ultrathin Bi 3 Fe 2 Mn 2 O 10+ δ layered supercell (BFMO322 LS) structure was deposited on an LaAlO 3 (LAO) (001) substrate using pulsed laser deposition. Microstructural analysis suggests that a layered supercell (LS) structure consisting of two-layer-thick Bi–O slabs and two-layer-thick Mn/Fe–O octahedra slabs was formed on top of the pseudo-perovskite interlayer (IL). A robust saturation magnetization value of 129 and 96 emu cm −3 is achieved in a 12.3 nm thick film in the in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OP) directions, respectively. The ferromagnetism, dielectric permittivity, and optical bandgap of the ultrathin BFMO films can be effectively tuned by thickness and morphology variation. In addition, the anisotropy of all ultrathin BFMO films switches from OP dominating to IP dominating as the thickness increases. This study demonstrates the ultrathin BFMO film with tunable multifunctionalities as a promising candidate for novel integrated spintronic devices.
  8. The novel use of ionic liquid as a solvent for biodegradable and natural organic biomaterials has increasingly sparked interest in the biomedical field. As compared to more volatile traditional solvents that rapidly degrade the protein molecular weight, the capability of polysaccharides and proteins to dissolve seamlessly in ionic liquid and form fine and tunable biomaterials after regeneration is the key interest of this study. Here, a blended system consisting of Bombyx Mori silk fibroin protein and a cellulose derivative, cellulose acetate (CA), in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) was regenerated and underwent characterization to understand the structure and physical properties of the films. The change in the morphology of the biocomposites (by scanning electron microscope, SEM) and their secondary structure analysis (by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIR) showed that the samples underwent a wavering conformational change on a microscopic level, resulting in strong interactions and changes in their crystalline structures such as the CA crystalline and silk beta-pleated sheets once the different ratios were applied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that strong molecular interactions were generated between CA and silk chains, providing the blended films lower glass transitions than those of the pure silk or cellulose acetate. All filmsmore »that were blended had higher thermal stability than the pure cellulose acetate sample but presented gradual changes amongst the changing of ratios, as demonstrated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). This study provides the basis for the comprehension of the protein-polysaccharide composites for various biomedical applications.« less