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Bridging the Gap—The Disappearance of the Intermediate Period Gap for Fully Convective Stars, Uncovered by New ZTF Rotation PeriodsAbstract The intermediate period gap, discovered by Kepler, is an observed dearth of stellar rotation periods in the temperature–period diagram at ∼20 days for G dwarfs and up to ∼30 days for early-M dwarfs. However, because Kepler mainly targeted solar-like stars, there is a lack of measured periods for M dwarfs, especially those at the fully convective limit. Therefore it is unclear if the intermediate period gap exists for mid- to late-M dwarfs. Here, we present a period catalog containing 40,553 rotation periods (9535 periods >10 days), measured using the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF). To measure these periods, we developed a simple pipeline that improves directly on the ZTF archival light curves and reduces the photometric scatter by 26%, on average. This new catalog spans a range of stellar temperatures that connect samples from Kepler with MEarth, a ground-based time-domain survey of bright M dwarfs, and reveals that the intermediate period gap closes at the theoretically predicted location of the fully convective boundary ( G BP − G RP ∼ 2.45 mag). This result supports the hypothesis that the gap is caused by core–envelope interactions. Using gyro-kinematic ages, we also find a potential rapid spin-down of stars across this periodmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 16, 2023
Similarities behind the high- and low- α disc: small intrinsic abundance scatter and migrating stars
The detailed age-chemical abundance relations of stars measure time-dependent chemical evolution. These trends offer strong empirical constraints on nucleosynthetic processes, as well as the homogeneity of star-forming gas. Characterizing chemical abundances of stars across the Milky Way over time has been made possible very recently, thanks to surveys like Gaia, APOGEE, and Kepler. Studies of the low-α disc have shown that individual elements have unique age–abundance trends and the intrinsic dispersion around these relations is small. In this study, we examine and compare the age distribution of stars across both the high and low-α disc and quantify the intrinsic dispersion of 16 elements around their age–abundance relations at [Fe/H] = 0 using APOGEE DR16. We examine the age–metallicity relation and visualize the temporal and spatial distribution of disc stars in small chemical cells. We find: (1) the high-α disc has shallower age–abundance relations compared to the low-α disc, but similar median intrinsic dispersions of ∼0.03 dex; (2) turnover points in the age-[Fe/H] relations across radius for both the high- and low-α disc. The former constrains the mechanisms that set similar intrinsic dispersions, regardless of differences in the enrichment history, for stars in both disc, and the latter indicates the presence of radialmore »