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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 4, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Climate change is impacting global crop productivity, and agricultural land suitability is predicted to significantly shift in the future. Responses to changing conditions and increasing yield variability can range from altered management strategies to outright land use conversions that may have significant environmental and socioeconomic ramifications. However, the extent to which agricultural land use changes in response to variations in climate is unclear at larger scales. Improved understanding of these dynamics is important since land use changes will have consequences not only for food security but also for ecosystem health, biodiversity, carbon storage, and regional and global climate. In this study, we combine land use products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer with climate reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis v5 to analyze correspondence between changes in cropland and changes in temperature and water availability from 2001 to 2018. While climate trends explained little of the variability in land cover changes, increasing temperature, extreme heat days, potential evaporation, and drought severity were associated with higher levels of cropland loss. These patterns were strongest in regions with more cropland change, and generally reflected underlying climate suitability—they were amplified in hotter and drier regions, and reversed direction in cooler and wetter regions. At national scales, climate response patterns varied significantly, reflecting the importance of socioeconomic, political, and geographic factors, as well as differences in adaptation strategies. This global-scale analysis does not attempt to explain local mechanisms of change but identifies climate-cropland patterns that exist in aggregate and may be hard to perceive at local scales. It is intended to supplement regional studies, providing further context for locally-observed phenomena and highlighting patterns that require further analysis.

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  4. Abstract

    Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) moiré superlattices, owing to the moiré flatbands and strong correlation, can host periodic electron crystals and fascinating correlated physics. The TMDC heterojunctions in the type-II alignment also enable long-lived interlayer excitons that are promising for correlated bosonic states, while the interaction is dictated by the asymmetry of the heterojunction. Here we demonstrate a new excitonic state, quadrupolar exciton, in a symmetric WSe2-WS2-WSe2trilayer moiré superlattice. The quadrupolar excitons exhibit a quadratic dependence on the electric field, distinctively different from the linear Stark shift of the dipolar excitons in heterobilayers. This quadrupolar exciton stems from the hybridization of WSe2valence moiré flatbands. The same mechanism also gives rise to an interlayer Mott insulator state, in which the two WSe2layers share one hole laterally confined in one moiré unit cell. In contrast, the hole occupation probability in each layer can be continuously tuned via an out-of-plane electric field, reaching 100% in the top or bottom WSe2under a large electric field, accompanying the transition from quadrupolar excitons to dipolar excitons. Our work demonstrates a trilayer moiré system as a new exciting playground for realizing novel correlated states and engineering quantum phase transitions.

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  5. Large workloads of event trend aggregation queries are widely deployed to derive high-level insights about current event trends in near real time. To speed-up the execution, we identify and leverage sharing opportunities from complex patterns with flat Kleene operators or even nested Kleene expressions. We propose Gloria, a graph-based sharing optimizer for event trend aggregation. First, we map the sharing optimization problem to a graph path search problem in the Gloria graph with execution costs encoded as weights. Second, we shrink the search space by applying cost-driven pruning principles that guarantee optimality of the reduced Gloria graph in most cases. Lastly, we propose a path search algorithm that identifies the sharing plan with minimum execution costs. Our experimental study on three real-world data sets demonstrates that our Gloria optimizer effectively reduces the search space, leading to 5-fold speed-up in optimization time. The optimized plan consistently reduces the query latency by 68%-93% compared to the plan generated by state-of-the-art approaches. 
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