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  1. Abstract

    We present JWST and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) imaging for the lensing system SPT0418−47, which includes a strongly lensed, dusty, star-forming galaxy at redshiftz= 4.225 and an associated multiply imaged companion. The JWST NIRCam and MIRI imaging observations presented in this paper were acquired as part of the Early Release Science program Targeting Extremely Magnified Panchromatic Lensed Arcs and Their Extended Star formation (TEMPLATES). This data set provides robust mutiwavelength detections of stellar light in both the main (SPT0418A) and companion (SPT0418B) galaxies, while the ALMA detection of [Cii] emission confirms that SPT0418B lies at the same redshift as SPT0418A. We infer that the projected physical separation of the two galaxies is 4.42 ± 0.05 kpc. We derive total magnifications ofμ= 29 ± 1 andμ= 4.1 ± 0.7 for SPT0418A and SPT0418B, respectively. We use bothprospectorandcigaleto derive stellar masses. We find that SPT0418A has a stellar mass ofM*=3.40.6+1.1×1010Mfromprospector orM*= 1.5 ± 0.3 × 1010Mfromcigale. The stellar mass ratio of SPT0418A and SPT0418B is roughly between 4 and 7 (4.21.6+1.9forprospectorand 7.5 ± 3.7 forcigale). We see evidence of extended structure associated with SPT0418A that is suggestive of a tidal feature. These features, along with the close projected proximity, imply that the system is interacting. Interestingly, the star formation rates and stellar masses of both galaxies are consistent with the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at this epoch, indicating that this ongoing interaction has not noticeably elevated the star formation levels.

     
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  2. In this work, we present a constraint on the abundance of supergiant (SG) stars at redshiftz ≈ 1, based on recent observations of a strongly lensed arc at this redshift. First we derived a free-form model of MACS J0416.1-2403 using data from the Beyond Ultra-deep Frontier Fields and Legacy Observations (BUFFALO) program. The new lens model is based on 72 multiply lensed galaxies that produce 214 multiple images, making it the largest sample of spectroscopically confirmed lensed galaxies on this cluster. The larger coverage in BUFFALO allowed us to measure the shear up to the outskirts of the cluster, and extend the range of lensing constraints up to ∼1 Mpc from the central region, providing a mass estimate up to this radius. As an application, we make predictions for the number of high-redshift multiply lensed galaxies detected in future observations with theJames WebbSpace Telescope (JWST). Then we focus on a previously known lensed galaxy atz = 1.0054, nicknamed Spock, which contains four previously reported transients. We interpret these transients as microcaustic crossings of SG stars and explain how we computed the probability of such events. Based on simplifications regarding the stellar evolution, we find that microlensing (by stars in the intracluster medium) of SG stars atz = 1.0054 can fully explain these events. The inferred abundance of SG stars is consistent with either (1) a number density of stars with bolometric luminosities beyond the Humphreys-Davidson (HD) limit (Lmax ≈ 6 × 105Lfor red stars), which is below ∼400 stars kpc−2, or (2) the absence of stars beyond the HD limit but with a SG number density of ∼9000 kpc−2for stars with luminosities between 105Land 6 × 105L. This is equivalent to one SG star per 10 × 10 pc2. Finally, we make predictions for future observations with JWST’s NIRcam. We find that in observations made with theF200Wfilter that reach 29 mag AB, if cool red SG stars exist atz ≈ 1 beyond the HD limit, they should be easily detected in this arc.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  3. ABSTRACT

    We present a new method to simultaneously and self-consistently model the mass distribution of galaxy clusters that combines constraints from strong lensing features, X-ray emission, and galaxy kinematics measurements. We are able to successfully decompose clusters into their collisionless and collisional mass components thanks to the X-ray surface brightness, as well as use the dynamics of cluster members, to obtain more accurate masses exploiting the fundamental plane of elliptical galaxies. Knowledge from all observables is included through a consistent Bayesian approach in the likelihood or in physically motivated priors. We apply this method to the galaxy cluster Abell S1063 and produce a mass model that we publicly release with this paper. The resulting mass distribution presents different ellipticities for the intra-cluster gas and the other large-scale mass components as well as deviation from elliptical symmetry in the main halo. We assess the ability of our method to recover the masses of the different elements of the cluster using a mock cluster based on a simplified version of our Abell S1063 model. Thanks to the wealth of mutliwavelength information provided by the mass model and the detected X-ray emission, we also found evidence for an ongoing merger event with gas sloshing from a smaller infalling structure into the main cluster. In agreement with previous findings, the total mass, gas profile, and gas mass fraction are all consistent with small deviations from the hydrostatic equilibrium. This new mass model for Abell S1063 is publicly available, as the lenstool extension used to construct it.

     
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  4. Abstract

    We present results of [Cii] 158μm emission line observations, and report the spectroscopic redshift confirmation of a strongly lensed (μ∼ 20) star-forming galaxy, MACS0308-zD1 atz= 6.2078 ± 0.0002. The [Cii] emission line is detected with a signal-to-noise ratio >6 within the rest-frame UV-bright clump of the lensed galaxy (zD1.1) and exhibits multiple velocity components; the narrow [Cii] has a velocity full width half maximum (FWHM) of 110 ± 20 km s−1, while broader [Cii] is seen with an FWHM of 230 ± 50 km s−1. The broader [Cii] component is blueshifted (−80 ± 20 km s−1) with respect to the narrow [Cii] component, and has a morphology that extends beyond the UV-bright clump. We find that, while the narrow [Cii] emission is most likely associated with zD1.1, the broader component is possibly associated with a physically distinct gas component from zD1.1 (e.g., outflowing or inflowing gas). Based on the nondetection ofλ158μmdust continuum, we find that MACS0308-zD1's star formation activity occurs in a dust-free environment indicated by a strong upper limit of infrared luminosity ≲9 × 108L. Targeting this strongly lensed faint galaxy for follow-up Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and JWST observations will be crucial to characterize the details of typical galaxy growth in the early Universe.

     
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  5. ABSTRACT

    Secure confirmation that a gravitational wave (GW) has been gravitationally lensed would bring together these two pillars of General Relativity for the first time. This breakthrough is challenging for many reasons, including: GW sky localization uncertainties dwarf the angular scale of gravitational lensing, the mass and structure of gravitational lenses is diverse, the mass function of stellar remnant compact objects is not yet well constrained, and GW detectors do not operate continuously. We introduce a new approach that is agnostic to the mass and structure of the lenses, compare the efficiency of different methods for lensed GW discovery, and explore detection of lensed kilonova counterparts as a direct method for localizing candidates. Our main conclusions are: (1) lensed neutron star mergers (NS–NS) are magnified into the ‘mass gap’ between NS and black holes, therefore selecting candidates from public GW alerts with high mass gap probability is efficient, (2) the rate of detectable lensed NS–NS will approach one per year in the mid-2020s, (3) the arrival time difference between lensed NS–NS images is $1\, \rm s\lesssim \Delta \mathit{ t}\lesssim 1\, yr$, and thus well-matched to the operations of GW detectors and optical telescopes, (4) lensed kilonova counterparts are faint at peak (e.g. rAB ≃ 24–26 in the mid-2020s), fade quickly ($d\lt 2\, \rm d$), and are detectable with target of opportunity observations with large wide-field telescopes. For example, just ≲ 0.25 per cent of Vera C. Rubin Observatory’s observing time will be sufficient to follow up one well-localized candidate per year. Our predictions also provide a physically well-defined basis for exploring electromagnetically the exciting new ‘mass gap’ discovery space.

     
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  6. ABSTRACT

    One of the main goals of the JWST is to study the first galaxies in the Universe. We present a systematic photometric analysis of very distant galaxies in the first JWST deep field towards the massive lensing cluster SMACS0723. As a result, we report the discovery of two galaxy candidates at z ∼ 16, only 250 million years after the big bang. We also identify two candidates at z ∼ 12 and six candidates at z ∼ 9−11. Our search extended out to z ≲ 21 by combining colour information across seven near-infrared camera and near-infrared imager and slitless spectrograph filters. By modelling the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) with EAZY and BEAGLE, we test the robustness of the photometric redshift estimates. While their intrinsic (unlensed) luminosity is typical of the characteristic luminosity L* at z > 10, our high-redshift galaxies typically show small sizes and their morphologies are consistent with disks in some cases. The highest-redshift candidates have extremely blue ultraviolet-continuum slopes −3 < β < −2.4, young ages ∼10−100 Myr, and stellar masses around log (M⋆/M⊙) = 8.8 inferred from their spectral energy distribution modelling, which indicate a rapid build-up of their stellar mass. Our search clearly demonstrates the capabilities of JWST to uncover robust photometric candidates up to very high redshifts and peer into the formation epoch of the first galaxies.

     
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  7. ABSTRACT

    The Reionization Cluster Survey imaged 41 galaxy clusters with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), in order to detect lensed and high-redshift galaxies. Each cluster was imaged to about 26.5 AB mag in three optical and four near-infrared bands, taken in two distinct visits separated by varying time intervals. We make use of the multiple near-infrared epochs to search for transient sources in the cluster fields, with the primary motivation of building statistics for bright caustic crossing events in gravitational arcs. Over the whole sample, we do not find any significant (≳5σ) caustic crossing events, in line with expectations from semi-analytical calculations but in contrast to what may be naively expected from previous detections of some bright events or from deeper transient surveys that do find high rates of such events. Nevertheless, we find six prominent supernova (SN) candidates over the 41 fields: three of them were previously reported and three are new ones reported here for the first time. Out of the six candidates, four are likely core-collapse SNe – three in cluster galaxies, and among which only one was known before, and one slightly behind the cluster at z ∼ 0.6–0.7. The other two are likely Ia – both of them previously known, one probably in a cluster galaxy and one behind it at z ≃ 2. Our study supplies empirical bounds for the rate of caustic crossing events in galaxy cluster fields to typical HST magnitudes, and lays the groundwork for a future SN rate study.

     
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  8. Abstract

    We present the discovery of the most distant, dynamically relaxed cool core cluster, SPT-CL J2215−3537 (SPT2215), and its central brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) atz= 1.16. Using new X-ray observations, we demonstrate that SPT2215 harbors a strong cool core with a central cooling time of 200 Myr (at 10 kpc) and a maximal intracluster medium cooling rate of 1900 ± 400Myr−1. This prodigious cooling may be responsible for fueling the extended, star-forming filaments observed in Hubble Space Telescope imaging. Based on new spectrophotometric data, we detect bright [Oii] emission in the BCG, implying an unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of320140+230Myr−1. The detection of a weak radio source (2.0 ± 0.8 mJy at 0.8 GHz) suggests ongoing feedback from an active galactic nucleus (AGN), though the implied jet power is less than half the cooling luminosity of the hot gas, consistent with cooling overpowering heating. The extreme cooling and SFR of SPT2215 are rare among known cool core clusters, and it is even more remarkable that we observe these at such high redshift, when most clusters are still dynamically disturbed. The high mass of this cluster, coupled with the fact that it is dynamically relaxed with a highly isolated BCG, suggests that it is an exceptionally rare system that must have formed very rapidly in the early universe. Combined with the high SFR, SPT2215 may be a high-zanalog of the Phoenix cluster, potentially providing insight into the limits of AGN feedback and star formation in the most massive galaxies.

     
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  9. Abstract

    We report the discovery of four galaxy candidates observed 450–600 Myr after the Big Bang with photometric redshifts betweenz∼ 8.3 and 10.2 measured using James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRCam imaging of the galaxy cluster WHL0137−08 observed in eight filters spanning 0.8–5.0μm, plus nine Hubble Space Telescope filters spanning 0.4–1.7μm. One candidate is gravitationally lensed with a magnification ofμ∼ 8, while the other three are located in a nearby NIRCam module with expected magnifications ofμ≲ 1.1. Using SED fitting, we estimate the stellar masses of these galaxies are typically in the rangelogM/M= 8.3–8.7. All appear young, with mass-weighted ages <240 Myr, low dust contentAV< 0.15 mag, and specific star formation rates sSFR ∼0.25–10 Gyr−1for most. Onez∼ 9 candidate is consistent with an age <5 Myr and an sSFR ∼10 Gyr−1, as inferred from a strong F444W excess, implying [Oiii]+Hβrest-frame equivalent width ∼2000 Å, although an olderz∼ 10 object is also allowed. Anotherz∼ 9 candidate is lensed into an arc 2.″4 long with a magnification ofμ∼ 8. This arc is the most spatially resolved galaxy atz∼ 9 known to date, revealing structures ∼30 pc across. Follow-up spectroscopy of WHL0137−08 with JWST/NIRSpec will be useful to spectroscopically confirm these high-redshift galaxy candidates and to study their physical properties in more detail.

     
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  10. Abstract Using stellar population synthesis models to infer star formation histories (SFHs), we analyze photometry and spectroscopy of a large sample of quiescent galaxies that are members of Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ)-selected galaxy clusters across a wide range of redshifts. We calculate stellar masses and mass-weighted ages for 837 quiescent cluster members at 0.3 < z < 1.4 using rest-frame optical spectra and the Python-based Prospector framework, from 61 clusters in the SPT-GMOS Spectroscopic Survey (0.3 < z < 0.9) and three clusters in the SPT Hi-z cluster sample (1.25 < z < 1.4). We analyze spectra of subpopulations divided into bins of redshift, stellar mass, cluster mass, and velocity-radius phase-space location, as well as by creating composite spectra of quiescent member galaxies. We find that quiescent galaxies in our data set sample a diversity of SFHs, with a median formation redshift (corresponding to the lookback time from the redshift of observation to when a galaxy forms 50% of its mass, t 50 ) of z = 2.8 ± 0.5, which is similar to or marginally higher than that of massive quiescent field and cluster galaxy studies. We also report median age–stellar mass relations for the full sample (age of the universe at t 50 (Gyr) = 2.52 (±0.04)–1.66 (±0.12) log 10 ( M /10 11 M ⊙ )) and recover downsizing trends across stellar mass; we find that massive galaxies in our cluster sample form on aggregate ∼0.75 Gyr earlier than lower-mass galaxies. We also find marginally steeper age–mass relations at high redshifts, and report a bigger difference in formation redshifts across stellar mass for fixed environment, relative to formation redshifts across environment for fixed stellar mass. 
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