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  1. Summary

    We present new models and methods for the posterior drift problem where the regression function in the target domain is modelled as a linear adjustment, on an appropriate scale, of that in the source domain, and study the theoretical properties of our proposed estimators in the binary classification problem. The core idea of our model inherits the simplicity and the usefulness of generalized linear models and accelerated failure time models from the classical statistics literature. Our approach is shown to be flexible and applicable in a variety of statistical settings, and can be adopted for transfer learning problems in various domains including epidemiology, genetics and biomedicine. As concrete applications, we illustrate the power of our approach (i) through mortality prediction for British Asians by borrowing strength from similar data from the larger pool of British Caucasians, using the UK Biobank data, and (ii) in overcoming a spurious correlation present in the source domain of the Waterbirds dataset.

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  2. We consider the task of meta-analysis in high-dimensional settings in which the data sources are similar but non-identical. To borrow strength across such heterogeneous datasets, we introduce a global parameter that emphasizes interpretability and statistical efficiency in the presence of heterogeneity. We also propose a one-shot estimator of the global parameter that preserves the anonymity of the data sources and converges at a rate that depends on the size of the combined dataset. For high-dimensional linear model settings, we demonstrate the superiority of our identification restrictions in adapting to a previously seen data distribution as well as predicting for a new/unseen data distribution. Finally, we demonstrate the benefits of our approach on a large-scale drug treatment dataset involving several different cancer cell-lines. 
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