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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 2, 2024
  2. Trajectory prediction is a critical component for autonomous vehicles (AVs) to perform safe planning and navigation. However, few studies have analyzed the adversarial robustness of trajectory prediction or investigated whether the worst-case prediction can still lead to safe planning. To bridge this gap, we study the adversarial robustness of trajectory prediction models by proposing a new adversarial attack that perturbs normal vehicle trajectories to maximize the prediction error. Our experiments on three models and three datasets show that the adversarial prediction increases the prediction error by more than 150%. Our case studies show that if an adversary drives a vehicle close to the target AV following the adversarial trajectory, the AV may make an inaccurate prediction and even make unsafe driving decisions. We also explore possible mitigation techniques via data augmentation and trajectory smoothing. 
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  3. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are on the verge of changing the transportation industry. Despite the fast development of autonomous driving systems (ADSs), they still face safety and security challenges. Current defensive approaches usually focus on a narrow objective and are bound to specific platforms, making them difficult to generalize. To solve these limitations, we propose AVMaestro, an efficient and effective policy enforcement framework for full-stack ADSs. AVMaestro includes a code instrumentation module to systematically collect required information across the entire ADS, which will then be feed into a centralized data examination module, where users can utilize the global information to deploy defensive methods to protect AVs from various threats. AVMaestro is evaluated on top of Apollo-6.0 and experimental results confirm that it can be easily incorporated into the original ADS with almost negligible run-time delay. We further demonstrate that utilizing the global information can not only improve the accuracy of existing intrusion detection methods, but also potentially inspire new security applications. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    A critical aspect of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is the object detection stage, which is increasingly being performed with sensor fusion models: multimodal 3D object detection models which utilize both 2D RGB image data and 3D data from a LIDAR sensor as inputs. In this work, we perform the first study to analyze the robustness of a high-performance, open source sensor fusion model architecture towards adversarial attacks and challenge the popular belief that the use of additional sensors automatically mitigate the risk of adversarial attacks. We find that despite the use of a LIDAR sensor, the model is vulnerable to our purposefully crafted image-based adversarial attacks including disappearance, universal patch, and spoofing. After identifying the underlying reason, we explore some potential defenses and provide some recommendations for improved sensor fusion models. 
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  5. Connected vehicle (CV) technologies enable data exchange between vehicles and transportation infrastructure. In a CV environment, traffic signal control systems receive CV trajectory data through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications to make control decisions. Comparing with existing data collection methods (e.g., from loop-detectors), the CV trajectory data provide much richer information, and therefore have great potentials to improve the system performance by reducing total vehicle delay at signalized intersections. However, this connectivity might also bring cyber security concerns. In this paper, we aim to investigate the security problem of CV-based traffic signal control (CV-TSC) systems. Specifically, we focus on evaluating the impact of falsified data attacks on the system performance. A black-box attack scenario, in which the control logic of a CV-TSC system is unavailable to attackers, is considered. A two-step attack model is constructed. In the first step, the attacker tries to learn the control logic using a surrogate model. Based on the surrogate model, in the second step, the attacker launches falsified data attacks to influence the control systems to make sub-optimal control decisions. In the case study, we apply the attack model to an existing CV-TSC system (i.e., I-SIG) and find intersection delay can be significantly increased. Finally, we discuss some promising defense directions. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    With the development of the emerging Connected Vehicle (CV) technology, vehicles can wirelessly communicate with traffic infrastructure and other vehicles to exchange safety and mobility information in real time. However, the integrated communication capability inevitably increases the attack surface of vehicles, which can be exploited to cause safety hazard on the road. Thus, it is highly desirable to systematically understand design-level flaws in the current CV network stack as well as in CV applications, and the corresponding security/safety consequences so that these flaws can be proactively discovered and addressed before large-scale deployment. In this paper, we design CVAnalyzer, a system for discovering design-level flaws for availability violations of the CV network stack, as well as quantifying the corresponding security/safety consequences. To achieve this, CVAnalyzer combines the attack discovery capability of a general model checker and the quantitative threat assessment capability of a probabilistic model checker. Using CVAnalyzer, we successfully uncovered 4 new DoS (Denial-of-Service) vulnerabilities of the latest CV network protocols and 14 new DoS vulnerabilities of two CV platoon management protocols. Our quantification results show that these attacks can have as high as 99% success rates, and in the worst case can at least double the delay in packet processing, violating the latency requirement in CV communication.We implemented and validated all attacks in a real-world testbed, and also analyzed the fundamental causes to propose potential solutions. We have reported our findings in the CV network protocols to the IEEE 1609 Working Group, and the group has acknowledged the discovered vulnerabilities and plans to adopt our solutions. 
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