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  1. ABSTRACT

    Disintegrating multiple systems have been previously discovered from kinematic studies of the Hipparcos catalogue. They are presumably the result of dynamical encounters taking place in the Galactic disc between single/multiple systems. In this paper, we aim to expand the search for such systems, to study their properties, as well as to characterize possible low-mass ejecta (i.e. brown dwarfs and planets). We have assembled a list of 15 candidate systems using astrometry from the Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution (later upgraded with Gaia DR3), and here we present the discovery and follow-up of five of them. We have obtained DECam imaging for all five systems and by combining near-infrared photometry and proper motion, we searched for ultracool ejected components. We find that the system consisting of TYC 7731-1951-1, TYC 7731-2128 AB, and TYC 7731-1995-1ABC?, contains one very promising ultracool dwarf candidate. Using additional data from the literature, we have found that three out of five disintegrating system candidates are likely to be true disintegrating systems.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Using a sample of 361 nearby brown dwarfs, we have searched for 4.6μm variability, indicative of large-scale rotational modulations or large-scale, long-term changes on timescales of over 10 yr. Our findings show no statistically significant variability in Spitzer’s Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) channel 2 (ch2) or Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer W2 photometry. For Spitzer the ch2 1σlimits are ∼8 mmag for objects at 11.5 mag and ∼22 mmag for objects at 16 mag. This corresponds to no variability above 4.5% at 11.5 mag and 12.5% at 16 mag. We conclude that highly variable brown dwarfs, at least two previously published examples of which have been shown to have 4.6μm variability above 80 mmag, are very rare. While analyzing the data, we also developed a new technique for identifying brown dwarf binary candidates in Spitzer data. We find that known binaries have IRAC ch2 point response function (PRF) flux measurements that are consistently dimmer than aperture flux measurements. We have identified 59 objects that exhibit such PRF versus aperture flux differences and are thus excellent binary brown dwarf candidates.

     
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  3. Abstract

    WISEA J153429.75−104303.3 (a.k.a. “The Accident”) is a brown dwarf with unique observational properties unlike those of any other known (sub)stellar object. It is thought to be a very cold, metal-poor brown dwarf, and potentially the first identified Y-type subdwarf. Although WISEA J153429.75−104303.3 is extremely faint atλ ∼ 1.25 μm, low-temperature atmosphere models suggest thatY-band flux could increase dramatically relative toJ-band as metallicity decreases from solar. We therefore obtained deepY-band follow-up imaging of WISEA J153429.75−104303.3 with the Dark Energy Camera, and report a resultingY-band limit ofY > 21.79 mag (Vega, 5σ).

     
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  4. Abstract

    Y dwarfs, the coolest known spectral class of brown dwarfs, overlap in mass and temperature with giant exoplanets, providing unique laboratories for studying low-temperature atmospheres. However, only a fraction of Y dwarf candidates have been spectroscopically confirmed. We present Keck/NIRES near-infrared spectroscopy of the nearby (d≈ 6–8 pc) brown dwarf CWISE J105512.11+544328.3. Although its near-infrared spectrum aligns best with the Y0 standard in theJband, no standard matches well across the fullYJHKwavelength range. The CWISE J105512.11+544328.3 NH3-H= 0.427 ± 0.0012 and CH4-J= 0.0385 ± 0.0007 absorption indices and absolute Spitzer [4.5] magnitude of 15.18 ± 0.22 are also indicative of an early-Y dwarf rather than a late-T dwarf. CWISE J105512.11+544328.3 additionally exhibits the bluest Spitzer [3.6]−[4.5] color among all spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs. Despite this anomalously blue Spitzer color given its low luminosity, CWISE J105512.11+544328.3 does not show other clear kinematic or spectral indications of low metallicity. Atmospheric model comparisons yield a log(g) ≤ 4.5 andTeff≈ 500 ± 150 K for this source. We classify CWISE J105512.11+544328.3 as a Y0 (pec) dwarf, adding to the remarkable diversity of the Y-type population. JWST spectroscopy would be crucial to understanding the origin of this Y dwarf’s unusual preference for low-gravity models and blue 3–5μm color.

     
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  5. Abstract

    We present the analysis of two unusually red L dwarfs, CWISE J075554.14−325956.3 (W0755−3259) and CWISE J165909.91−351108.5 (W1659−3511), confirmed by their newly obtained near-infrared spectra collected with the TripleSpec4 spectrograph on the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope. We classify W0755−3259 as an L7 very low-gravity dwarf, exhibiting extreme redness with a characteristic peakedH-band and spectral indices typical of low-gravity late-type L dwarfs. We classify W1659-3511 as a red L7 field-gravity dwarf, with a more roundedH-band peak and spectral indices that support a normal gravity designation. W1659−3511 is noticeably fainter than W0755−3259, and the roundedH-band of W1659−3511 may be evidence of CH4absorption.

     
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  6. Abstract

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a nearby L dwarf pair, CWISE J061741.79+194512.8AB. Keck/NIRES near-infrared spectroscopy shows that the pair is composed of an L2 dwarf primary and an L4 dwarf secondary. High resolution spectroscopy of the combined light system with Keck/NIRSPEC yields a radial velocity of 29.2 ± 0.3 km s−1and a projected rotational velocityvsini=41.62.6+2.7km s−1. Our spectrophotometric distance estimate places the system at 28.2 ± 5.7 pc, significantly more distant than originally estimated in Kirkpatrick et al. The angular separation of the components is 1.″31 ± 0.″14, corresponding to a projected physical separation of 37 ± 8 au.

     
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  7. Abstract

    We present the discovery of CWISE J050626.96+073842.4 (CWISE J0506+0738), an L/T transition dwarf with extremely red near-infrared colors discovered through the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 citizen science project. Photometry from UKIRT and CatWISE give a (JK)MKOcolor of 2.97 ± 0.03 mag and aJMKO− W2 color of 4.93 ± 0.02 mag, making CWISE J0506+0738 the reddest known free-floating L/T dwarf in both colors. We confirm the extremely red nature of CWISE J0506+0738 using Keck/NIRES near-infrared spectroscopy and establish that it is a low-gravity, late-type L/T transition dwarf. The spectrum of CWISE J0506+0738 shows possible signatures of CH4absorption in its atmosphere, suggesting a colder effective temperature than other known, young, red L dwarfs. We assign a preliminary spectral type for this source of L8γ–T0γ. We tentatively find that CWISE J0506+0738 is variable at 3–5μm based on multiepoch WISE photometry. Proper motions derived from follow-up UKIRT observations combined with a radial velocity from our Keck/NIRES spectrum and a photometric distance estimate indicate a strong membership probability in theβPic moving group. A future parallax measurement will help to establish a more definitive moving group membership for this unusual object.

     
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  8. Abstract In an effort to identify nearby and unusual cold objects in the solar neighborhood, we searched for previously unidentified moving objects using CatWISE2020 proper motion data combined with machine learning methods. We paired the motion candidates with their counterparts in 2MASS, UHS, and VHS. Then we searched for white dwarf, brown dwarf, and subdwarf outliers on the resulting color–color diagrams. This resulted in the discovery of 16 new dwarfs, including 2 nearby M dwarfs (<30 pc), a possible young L dwarf, a high-motion early-T dwarf, and 3 later-T dwarfs. This research represents a step forward in completing the census of the Sun’s neighbors. 
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  9. Abstract

    We present the discovery of VVV J165507.19−421755.5, a mid-T dwarf found through ongoing unWISE-based proper motion searches. A near-infrared spectrum of this object obtained with the NIRES instrument on the Keck II telescope indicates a spectral classification of T5. Using data from the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) catalog with a 9 year baseline, we measure a proper motion of (μαcos(δ),μδ) = (−631.0 ± 1.3, −315.0 ± 1.4) mas yr−1and a trigonometric parallax ofπabs = 66.0 ± 4.8 mas, corresponding to a distance of 15.2 ± 1.1 pc. The trigonometric parallax agrees well with our photometric distance estimate (16.13.9+5.1pc) assuming that VVV J165507.19−421755.5 is a single T5 dwarf. VVV J165507.19−421755.5 is a new member of the 20 parsec census.

     
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  10. Abstract Through the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 citizen science project we discovered a late-type L dwarf co-moving with the young K0 star BD+60 1417 at a projected separation of 37″ or 1662 au. The secondary—CWISER J124332.12+600126.2 (W1243)—is detected in both the CatWISE2020 and 2MASS reject tables. The photometric distance and CatWISE proper motion both match that of the primary within ∼1 σ and our estimates for a chance alignment yield a zero probability. Follow-up near-infrared spectroscopy reveals W1243 to be a very red 2MASS ( J – K s = 2.72), low surface gravity source that we classify as L6–L8 γ . Its spectral morphology strongly resembles that of confirmed late-type L dwarfs in 10–150 Myr moving groups as well as that of planetary mass companions. The position on near- and mid-infrared color–magnitude diagrams indicates the source is redder and fainter than the field sequence, a telltale sign of an object with thick clouds and a complex atmosphere. For the primary we obtained new optical spectroscopy and analyzed all available literature information for youth indicators. We conclude that the Li i abundance, its loci on color–magnitude and color–color diagrams, and the rotation rate revealed in multiple TESS sectors are all consistent with an age of 50–150 Myr. Using our re-evaluated age of the primary and the Gaia parallax, along with the photometry and spectrum for W1243, we find T eff = 1303 ± 31 K, log g = 4.3 ± 0.17 cm s −2 , and a mass of 15 ± 5 M Jup . We find a physical separation of ∼1662 au and a mass ratio of ∼0.01 for this system. Placing it in the context of the diverse collection of binary stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary companions, the BD+60 1417 system falls in a sparsely sampled area where the formation pathway is difficult to assess. 
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