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Creators/Authors contains: "Marques-Tavares, Gustavo"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. A bstract We study early and late time signatures of both QCD axion strings and hyperlight axion strings (axiverse strings). We focus on charge deposition onto axion strings from electromagnetic fields and subsequent novel neutralizing mechanisms due to bound state formation. While early universe signatures appear unlikely, there are a plethora of late time signatures. Axion strings passing through galaxies obtain a huge charge density, which is neutralized by a dense plasma of bound state Standard Model particles forming a one dimensional “atom”. The charged wave packets on the string, as well as the dense plasma outside, travel at nearly the speed of light along the string. These packets of high energy plasma collide with a center of mass energy of up to 10 9 GeV. These collisions can have luminosities up to seven orders of magnitude larger than the solar luminosity, and last for thousands of years, making them visible at radio telescopes even when they occur cosmologically far away. The new observables are complementary to the CMB observables for hyperlight axion strings that have been recently proposed, and are sensitive to a similar motivated parameter range.
  3. A bstract We present the supernova constraints on an axion-photon-dark photon coupling, which can be the leading coupling to dark sector models and can also lead to dramatic changes to axion cosmology. We show that the supernova bound on this coupling has two unusual features. One occurs because the scattering that leads to the trapping regime converts axions and dark photons into each other. Thus, if one of the two new particles is sufficiently massive, both production and scattering become suppressed and the bounds from bulk emission and trapped (area) emission both weaken exponentially and do not intersection The other unusual feature occurs because for light dark photons, longitudinal modes couple more weakly than transverse modes do. Since the longitudinal mode is more weakly coupled, it can still cause excessive cooling even if the transverse mode is trapped. Thus, the supernova constraints for massive dark photons look like two independent supernova bounds super-imposed on top of each other.
  4. A bstract The low frequency part of the gravitational wave spectrum generated by local physics, such as a phase transition or parametric resonance, is largely fixed by causality, offering a clean window into the early Universe. In this work, this low frequency end of the spectrum is analyzed with an emphasis on a physical understanding, such as the suppressed production of gravitational waves due to the excitation of an over-damped harmonic oscillator and their enhancement due to being frozen out while outside the horizon. Due to the difference between sub-horizon and super-horizon physics, it is inevitable that there will be a distinct spectral feature that could allow for the direct measurement of the conformal Hubble rate at which the phase transition occurred. As an example, free-streaming particles (such as the gravity waves themselves) present during the phase transition affect the production of super-horizon modes. This leads to a steeper decrease in the spectrum at low frequencies as compared to the well-known causal k 3 super-horizon scaling of stochastic gravity waves. If a sizable fraction of the energy density is in free-streaming particles, they even lead to the appearance of oscillatory features in the spectrum. If the universe was not radiationmore »dominated when the waves were generated, a similar feature also occurs at the transition between sub-horizon to super-horizon causality. These features are used to show surprising consequences, such as the fact that a period of matter domination following the production of gravity waves actually increases their power spectrum at low frequencies.« less