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  1. Abstract

    Oenothera sect. Calylophus is a North American group of 13 recognized taxa in the evening primrose family (Onagraceae) with an evolutionary history that may include independent origins of bee pollination, edaphic endemism, and permanent translocation heterozygosity. Like other groups that radiated relatively recently and rapidly, taxon boundaries within Oenothera sect. Calylophus have remained challenging to circumscribe. In this study, we used target enrichment, flanking noncoding regions, gene tree/species tree methods, tests for gene flow modified for target-enrichment data, and morphometric analysis to reconstruct phylogenetic hypotheses, evaluate current taxon circumscriptions, and examine character evolution in Oenothera sect. Calylophus. Because sect. Calylophus comprises a clade with a relatively restricted geographic range, we were able to extensively sample across the range of geographic, edaphic, and morphological diversity in the group. We found that the combination of exons and flanking noncoding regions led to improved support for species relationships. We reconstructed potential hybrid origins of some accessions and note that if processes such as hybridization are not taken into account, the number of inferred evolutionary transitions may be artificially inflated. We recovered strong evidence for multiple evolutionary origins of bee pollination from ancestral hawkmoth pollination, edaphic specialization on gypsum, and permanent translocation heterozygosity. This study applies newly emerging techniques alongside dense infraspecific sampling and morphological analyses to effectively reconstruct the recalcitrant history of a rapid radiation. [Gypsum endemism; Oenothera sect. Calylophus; Onagraceae; phylogenomics; pollinator shift; recent radiation; target enrichment.]

     
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  2. Premise

    Divergence depends on the strength of selection and frequency of gene flow between taxa, while reproductive isolation relies on mating barriers and geographic distance. Less is known about how these processes interact at early stages of speciation. Here, we compared population‐level differentiation in floral phenotype and genetic sequence variation among recently divergedCastillejato explore patterns of diversification under different scenarios of reproductive isolation.

    Methods

    Using target enrichment enabled by the Angiosperms353 probe set, we assessed genetic distance among 50 populations of fourCastillejaspecies. We investigated whether patterns of genetic divergence are explained by floral trait variation or geographic distance in two focal groups: the widespreadC. sessilifloraand the more restrictedC. purpureaspecies complex.

    Results

    We document thatC. sessilifloraand theC. purpureacomplex are characterized by high diversity in floral color across varying geographic scales. Despite phenotypic divergence, groups were not well supported in phylogenetic analyses, and little genetic differentiation was found across targeted Angiosperms353 loci. Nonetheless, a principal coordinate analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed differentiation withinC. sessilifloraacross floral morphs and geography and less differentiation among species of theC. purpureacomplex.

    Conclusions

    Patterns of genetic distance inC. sessiliflorasuggest species cohesion maintained over long distances despite variation in floral traits. In theC. purpureacomplex, divergence in floral color across narrow geographic clines may be driven by recent selection on floral color. These contrasting patterns of floral and genetic differentiation reveal that divergence can arise via multiple eco‐evolutionary paths.

     
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