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Free, publiclyaccessible full text available March 1, 2023

Abstract The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is the first cryogenic experiment searching for
decay that has been able to reach the onetonne mass scale. The detector, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy, consists of an array of 988$$0\nu \beta \beta $$ $0\nu \beta \beta $ crystals arranged in a compact cylindrical structure of 19 towers. CUORE began its first physics data run in 2017 at a base temperature of about 10 mK and in April 2021 released its$${\mathrm{TeO}}_{2}$$ ${\mathrm{TeO}}_{2}$ result of the search for$$3{\mathrm{rd}}$$ $3\mathrm{rd}$ , corresponding to a tonneyear of$$0\nu \beta \beta $$ $0\nu \beta \beta $ exposure. This is the largest amount of data ever acquired with a solid state detector and the most sensitive measurement of$$\mathrm{TeO}_{2}$$ ${\mathrm{TeO}}_{2}$ decay in$$0\nu \beta \beta $$ $0\nu \beta \beta $ ever conducted . We present the current status of CUORE search for$${}^{130}\mathrm{Te}$$ ${}^{130}\mathrm{Te}$ with the updated statistics of one tonneyr. We finally give an update of the CUORE background model and the measurement of the$$0\nu \beta \beta $$ $0\nu \beta \beta $$${}^{130}\mathrm{Te}$$ ${}^{130}\mathrm{Te}$ decay halflife and decay to excited states of$$2\nu \beta \beta $$ $2\nu \beta \beta $ , studies performed using an exposure of 300.7 kg yr.$${}^{130}\mathrm{Xe}$$ ${}^{130}\mathrm{Xe}$ 
NonHermitian optical systems with paritytime (PT) symmetry have recently revealed many intriguing prospects that outperform conservative structures. The previous works are mostly rooted in complex arrangements with controlled gainloss interplay. Here, we demonstrate antiPT symmetry inherent in the nonlinear optical interaction based upon forward optical fourwave mixing in a lasercooled atomic ensemble with negligible linear gain and loss. We observe that the pair of frequency modes undergo a nontrivial antiPT phase transition between coherent power oscillation and optical parametric amplification in presence of a large phase mismatch.

Abstract The possibility that neutrinos may be their own antiparticles, unique among the known fundamental particles, arises from the symmetric theory of fermions proposed by Ettore Majorana in 1937 1 . Given the profound consequences of such Majorana neutrinos, among which is a potential explanation for the matter–antimatter asymmetry of the universe via leptogenesis 2 , the Majorana nature of neutrinos commands intense experimental scrutiny globally; one of the primary experimental probes is neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ ) decay. Here we show results from the search for 0 νββ decay of 130 Te, using the latest advanced cryogenic calorimeters with the CUORE experiment 3 . CUORE, operating just 10 millikelvin above absolute zero, has pushed the state of the art on three frontiers: the sheer mass held at such ultralow temperatures, operational longevity, and the low levels of ionizing radiation emanating from the cryogenic infrastructure. We find no evidence for 0 νββ decay and set a lower bound of the process halflife as 2.2 × 10 25 years at a 90 per cent credibility interval. We discuss potential applications of the advances made with CUORE to other fields such as direct dark matter, neutrino and nuclear physics searches and largescale quantum computing, which canmore »Free, publiclyaccessible full text available April 7, 2023

A comparative study is presented to solve the inverse problem in elasticity for the shear modulus (stiffness) distribution utilizing two constitutive equations: (1) linear elasticity assuming small strain theory, and (2) finite elasticity with a hyperelastic neoHookean material model. Assuming that a material undergoes large deformations and material nonlinearity is assumed negligible, the inverse solution using (2) is anticipated to yield better results than (1). Given the fact that solving a linear elastic model is significantly faster than a nonlinear model and more robust numerically, we posed the following question: How accurately could we map the shear modulus distribution with a linear elastic model using small strain theory for a specimen undergoing large deformations? To this end, experimental displacement data of a silicone composite sample containing two stiff inclusions of different sizes under uniaxial displacement controlled extension were acquired using a digital image correlation system. The silicone based composite was modeled both as a linear elastic solid under infinitesimal strains and as a neoHookean hyperelastic solid that takes into account geometrically nonlinear finite deformations. We observed that the mapped shear modulus contrast, determined by solving an inverse problem, between inclusion and background was higher for the linear elastic model asmore »

Abstract The CUORE experiment is a large bolometric array searching for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta decay ( $$0\nu \beta \beta $$ 0 ν β β ) in the isotope $$\mathrm {^{130}Te}$$ 130 Te . In this work we present the latest results on two searches for the double beta decay (DBD) of $$\mathrm {^{130}Te}$$ 130 Te to the first $$0^{+}_2$$ 0 2 + excited state of $$\mathrm {^{130}Xe}$$ 130 Xe : the $$0\nu \beta \beta $$ 0 ν β β decay and the Standard Modelallowed twoneutrinos double beta decay ( $$2\nu \beta \beta $$ 2 ν β β ). Both searches are based on a 372.5 kg $$\times $$ × yr TeO $$_2$$ 2 exposure. The deexcitation gamma rays emitted by the excited Xe nucleus in the final state yield a unique signature, which can be searched for with low background by studying coincident events in two or more bolometers. The closely packed arrangement of the CUORE crystals constitutes a significant advantage in this regard. The median limit setting sensitivities at 90% Credible Interval (C.I.) of the given searches were estimated as $$\mathrm {S^{0\nu }_{1/2} = 5.6 \times 10^{24} \, \mathrm {yr}}$$ S 1 / 2 0more »