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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. Abstract

    The neuroanatomical changes that underpin cognitive development are of major interest in neuroscience. Of the many aspects of neuroanatomy to consider, tertiary sulci are particularly attractive as they emerge last in gestation, show a protracted development after birth, and are either human- or hominoid-specific. Thus, they are ideal targets for exploring morphological-cognitive relationships with cognitive skills that also show protracted development such as working memory (WM). Yet, the relationship between sulcal morphology and WM is unknown—either in development or more generally. To fill this gap, we adopted a data-driven approach with cross-validation to examine the relationship between sulcal depth in lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and verbal WM in 60 children and adolescents between ages 6 and 18. These analyses identified 9 left, and no right, LPFC sulci (of which 7 were tertiary) whose depth predicted verbal WM performance above and beyond the effect of age. Most of these sulci are located within and around contours of previously proposed functional parcellations of LPFC. This sulcal depth model outperformed models with age or cortical thickness. Together, these findings build empirical support for a classic theory that tertiary sulci serve as landmarks in association cortices that contribute to late-maturing human cognitive abilities.

  3. Sociohydrology is a recent effort to integrate coupled human-water systems to understand the dynamics and co-evolution of the system in a holistic sense. However, due to the complexity and uncertainty involved in coupled human-water systems, the feedbacks and interactions are inherently difficult to model. Part of this complexity is due to the multi-scale nature across space and time at which different hydrologic and social processes occur and the varying scale at which data is available. This systematic review seeks to comprehensively collect those documents that conduct analysis within the sociohydrology framework to quantify the spatial-temporal scale(s) and the types of variables and datasets that were used. Overall, a majority of sociohydrology studies reviewed were primarily published in hydrological journals and contain more established hydrological, rather than social, models. The spatial extents varied by political and natural boundaries with the most common being cities and watersheds. Temporal extents also varied from event-based to millennial timescales where decadal and yearly were the most common. In addition to this, current limitations of sociohydrology research, notably the absence of an interdisciplinary unity, future directions, and implications for scholars doing sociohydrology are discussed.
  4. Abstract

    The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is disproportionately expanded in humans compared to non-human primates, although the relationship between LPFC brain structures and uniquely human cognitive skills is largely unknown. Here, we test the relationship between variability in LPFC tertiary sulcal morphology and reasoning scores in a cohort of children and adolescents. Using a data-driven approach in independent discovery and replication samples, we show that the depth of specific LPFC tertiary sulci is associated with individual differences in reasoning scores beyond age. To expedite discoveries in future neuroanatomical-behavioral studies, we share tertiary sulcal definitions with the field. These findings support a classic but largely untested theory linking the protracted development of tertiary sulci to late-developing cognitive processes.

  5. A species can benefit or be hurt by other species. For example, honeybees and flowering plants help each other to flourish, while lions and gazelles behave in ways that decrease each other’s populations. Understanding these relationships is important for controlling pests and diseases. Sometimes it is easiest to study such interactions by looking at simple ones that happen on a small scale. Amoebas are common soil organisms that have the same basic organization as human cells. They are much larger and more complex than the bacteria that also live in the soil. How exactly the amoebas and bacteria interact in the soil is an important question, particularly as some of the bacteria can also live inside amoebas. Does this intimate relationship help or harm the amoeba? Shu, Brock, Geist et al. studied the relationship between a widely studied species of social amoeba and two species of bacteria that can live inside it. Some of the amoebas naturally contained one of the bacteria species, and others were infected with the bacteria in experiments. Throughout the entire life cycle of the amoebas, the bacteria lived inside them. During one part of the life cycle, amoebas form so-called fruiting bodies, which release sporesmore »that can develop into new amoebas. Shu et al. found that both types of bacteria alter the structure of the fruiting bodies in ways that reduce how well the spores disperse. One of the bacteria species, called Burkholderia hayleyella, harmed the amoebas a lot. It caused most harm to amoebas that do not naturally host the bacteria. This indicates that the amoebas that do host this species may have evolved to avoid its worst effects. The amoebas have many similarities to the white blood cells that clear bacteria from the human body. Certain bacteria can get inside white blood cells, causing diseases such as tuberculosis. Understanding how bacteria harm amoebas might be useful for understanding such diseases, and developing treatments for them. Though the bacteria Shu et al. studied are not toxic to humans, they are closely related to bacteria that are harmful. It is therefore possible that some bacteria that infect humans first evolve to infect amoebas.« less