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  4. Despite decades of research on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), fundamental obstacles remain to addressing worldwide contamination by these chemicals and their associated impacts on environmental quality and health. Here, we propose six urgent questions relevant to science, technology, and policy that must be tackled to address the “PFAS problem”: (1) What are the global production volumes of PFAS, and where are PFAS used? (2) Where are the unknown PFAS hotspots in the environment? (3) How can we make measuring PFAS globally accessible? (4) How can we safely manage PFAS-containing waste? (5) How do we understand and describe the healthmore »effects of PFAS exposure? (6) Who pays the costs of PFAS contamination? The importance of each question and barriers to progress are briefly described, and several potential paths forward are proposed. Given the diversity of PFAS and their uses, the extreme persistence of most PFAS, the striking ongoing lack of fundamental information, and the inequity of the health and environmental impacts from PFAS contamination, there is a need for scientific and regulatory communities to work together, with cooperation from PFAS-related industries, to fill in critical data gaps and protect human health and the environment.« less
  5. Abstract The variety of configurations for vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) make the development of universal scaling relationships for even basic performance parameters difficult. Rotor geometry changes can be characterized using the concept of solidity, defined as the ratio of solid rotor area to the swept area. However, few studies have explored the effect of this parameter at full-scale conditions due to the challenge of matching both the non-dimensional rotational rate (or tip speed ratio) and scale (or Reynolds number) in conventional wind tunnels. In this study, experiments were conducted on a VAWT model using a specialized compressed-air wind tunnel wheremore »the density can be increased to over 200 times atmospheric air. The number of blades on the model was altered to explore how solidity affects performance while keeping other geometric parameters, such as the ratio of blade chord to rotor radius, the same. These data were collected at conditions relevant to the field-scale VAWT but in the controlled environment of the lab. For the three highest solidity rotors (using the most blades), performance was found to depend similarly on the Reynolds number, despite changes in rotational effects. This result has direct implications for the modelling and design of high-solidity field-scale VAWTs.« less