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  1. Abstract

    We present a measurement of the Hubble ConstantH0using the gravitational wave event GW190412, an asymmetric binary black hole merger detected by LIGO/Virgo, as a dark standard siren. This event does not have an electromagnetic counterpart, so we use the statistical standard siren method and marginalize over potential host galaxies from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. GW190412 is well-localized to 12 deg2(90% credible interval), so it is promising for a dark siren analysis. The dark siren value forH0=85.433.9+29.1km s−1 Mpc−1, with a posterior shape that is consistent with redshift overdensities. When combined with the bright standard siren measurement from GW170817 we recoverH0=77.965.03+23.0km s−1 Mpc−1, consistent with both early and late-time Universe measurements ofH0. This work represents the first standard siren analysis performed with DESI data, and includes the most complete spectroscopic sample used in a dark siren analysis to date.

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    The full-shape correlations of the Lyman alpha (Ly α) forest contain a wealth of cosmological information through the Alcock–Paczyński effect. However, these measurements are challenging to model without robustly testing and verifying the theoretical framework used for analysing them. Here, we leverage the accuracy and volume of the N-body simulation suite AbacusSummit to generate high-resolution Ly α skewers and quasi-stellar object (QSO) catalogues. One of the main goals of our mocks is to aid in the full-shape Ly α analysis planned by the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) team. We provide optical depth skewers for six of the fiducial cosmology base-resolution simulations ($L_{\rm box} = 2\, h^{-1}\, {\rm Gpc}$, N = 69123) at z = 2.5. We adopt a simple recipe based on the Fluctuating Gunn–Peterson Approximation (FGPA) for constructing these skewers from the matter density in an N-body simulation and calibrate it against the 1D and 3D Ly α power spectra extracted from the hydrodynamical simulation IllustrisTNG (TNG; $L_{\rm box} = 205\, h^{-1}\, {\rm Mpc}$, N = 25003). As an important application, we study the non-linear broadening of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak and show the cross-correlation between DESI-like QSOs and our Ly α forest skewers. We find differences on small scales between the Kaiser approximation prediction and our mock measurements of the Ly α × QSO cross-correlation, which would be important to account for in upcoming analyses. The AbacusSummit Ly α forest mocks open up the possibility for improved modelling of cross-correlations between Ly α and cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing and Ly α and QSOs, and for forecasts of the 3-point Ly α correlation function. Our catalogues and skewers are publicly available on Globus via the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) (full link under the section ‘Data Availability’).

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    The joint analysis of different cosmological probes, such as galaxy clustering and weak lensing, can potentially yield invaluable insights into the nature of the primordial Universe, dark energy, and dark matter. However, the development of high-fidelity theoretical models is a necessary stepping stone. Here, we present public high-resolution weak lensing maps on the light-cone, generated using the N-body simulation suite abacussummit, and accompanying weak lensing mock catalogues, tuned to the Early Data Release small-scale clustering measurements of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument. Available in this release are maps of the cosmic shear, deflection angle, and convergence fields at source redshifts ranging from z = 0.15 to 2.45 as well as cosmic microwave background convergence maps for each of the 25 base-resolution simulations ($L_{\rm box} = 2000\, h^{-1}\, {\rm Mpc}$ and Npart = 69123) as well as for the two huge simulations ($L_{\rm box} = 7500\, h^{-1}\, {\rm Mpc}$ and Npart = 86403) at the fiducial abacussummit cosmology. The pixel resolution of each map is 0.21 arcmin, corresponding to a healpix Nside of 16 384. The sky coverage of the base simulations is an octant until z ≈ 0.8 (decreasing to about 1800 deg2 at z ≈ 2.4), whereas the huge simulations offer full-sky coverage until z ≈ 2.2. Mock lensing source catalogues are sampled matching the ensemble properties of the Kilo-Degree Survey, Dark Energy Survey, and Hyper Suprime-Cam data sets. The mock catalogues are validated against theoretical predictions for various clustering and lensing statistics, such as correlation multipoles, galaxy–shear, and shear–shear, showing excellent agreement. All products can be downloaded via a Globus endpoint (see Data Availability section).

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    We present the first eight months of data from our secondary target programme within the ongoing Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. Our programme uses a mid-infrared and optical colour selection to preferentially target dust-reddened quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) that would have otherwise been missed by the nominal DESI QSO selection. So far, we have obtained optical spectra for 3038 candidates, of which ∼70 per cent of the high-quality objects (those with robust redshifts) are visually confirmed to be Type 1 QSOs, consistent with the expected fraction from the main DESI QSO survey. By fitting a dust-reddened blue QSO composite to the QSO spectra, we find they are well-fitted by a normal QSO with up to AV ∼ 4 mag of line-of-sight dust extinction. Utilizing radio data from the LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) DR2, we identify a striking positive relationship between the amount of line-of-sight dust extinction towards a QSO and the radio detection fraction, that is not driven by radio-loud systems, redshift and/or luminosity effects. This demonstrates an intrinsic connection between dust reddening and the production of radio emission in QSOs, whereby the radio emission is most likely due to low-powered jets or winds/outflows causing shocks in a dusty environment. On the basis of this evidence, we suggest that red QSOs may represent a transitional ‘blow-out’ phase in the evolution of QSOs, where winds and outflows evacuate the dust and gas to reveal an unobscured blue QSO.

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    Combining different observational probes, such as galaxy clustering and weak lensing, is a promising technique for unveiling the physics of the Universe with upcoming dark energy experiments. The galaxy redshift sample from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will have a significant overlap with major ongoing imaging surveys specifically designed for weak lensing measurements: the Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), the Dark Energy Survey (DES), and the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey. In this work, we analyse simulated redshift and lensing catalogues to establish a new strategy for combining high-quality cosmological imaging and spectroscopic data, in view of the first-year data assembly analysis of DESI. In a test case fitting for a reduced parameter set, we employ an optimal data compression scheme able to identify those aspects of the data that are most sensitive to cosmological information and amplify them with respect to other aspects of the data. We find this optimal compression approach is able to preserve all the information related to the growth of structures.

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    A new class of white dwarfs, dubbed DAHe, that present Zeeman-split Balmer lines in emission has recently emerged. However, the physical origin of these emission lines remains unclear. We present here a sample of 21 newly identified DAHe systems and determine magnetic field strengths and (for a subset) periods that span the ranges of ≃6.5–147 MG and ≃0.4–36 h, respectively. All but four of these systems were identified from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument survey sample of more than 47 000 white dwarf candidates observed during its first year of observations. We present detailed analysis of the new DAHe WD J161634.36+541011.51 with a spin period of 95.3 min, which exhibits an anticorrelation between broad-band flux and Balmer line strength that is typically observed for this class of systems. All DAHe systems cluster closely on the Gaia Hertzsprung–Russell diagram where they represent ≃1 per cent of white dwarfs within that region. This grouping further solidifies their unexplained emergence at relatively late cooling times and we discuss this in context of current formation theories. Nine of the new DAHe systems are identifiable from Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra of white dwarfs that had been previously classified as featureless DC-type systems. We suggest high-S/N (signal-to-noise ratios), unbiased observations of DCs as a possible route for discovering additional DAHe systems.

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  7. Abstract

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, consisting of 5020 robotic fiber positioners and associated systems on the Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona, is carrying out a survey to measure the spectra of 40 million galaxies and quasars and produce the largest 3D map of the universe to date. The primary science goal is to use baryon acoustic oscillations to measure the expansion history of the universe and the time evolution of dark energy. A key function of the online control system is to position each fiber on a particular target in the focal plane with an accuracy of 11μm rms 2D. This paper describes the set of software programs used to perform this function along with the methods used to validate their performance.

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  8. Abstract

    We report the methods of and initial scientific inferences from the extraction of precision photometric information for the >800 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) discovered in the images of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Scene-modeling photometry is used to obtain shot-noise-limited flux measures for each exposure of each TNO, with background sources subtracted. Comparison of double-source fits to the pixel data with single-source fits are used to identify and characterize two binary TNO systems. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo method samples the joint likelihood of the intrinsic colors of each source as well as the amplitude of its flux variation, given the time series of multiband flux measurements and their uncertainties. A catalog of these colors and light-curve amplitudesAis included with this publication. We show how to assign a likelihood to the distributionq(A) of light-curve amplitudes in any subpopulation. Using this method, we find decisive evidence (i.e., evidence ratio <0.01) that cold classical (CC) TNOs with absolute magnitude 6 <Hr< 8.2 are more variable than the hot classical (HC) population of the sameHr, reinforcing theories that the former form in situ and the latter arise from a different physical population. Resonant and scattering TNOs in thisHrrange have variability consistent with either the HCs or CCs. DES TNOs withHr< 6 are seen to be decisively less variable than higher-Hrmembers of any dynamical group, as expected. More surprising is that detached TNOs are decisively less variable than scattering TNOs, which requires them to have distinct source regions or some subsequent differential processing.

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  9. Abstract

    We introduce the DESI LOW-ZSecondary Target Survey, which combines the wide-area capabilities of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) with an efficient, low-redshift target selection method. Our selection consists of a set of color and surface brightness cuts, combined with modern machine-learning methods, to target low-redshift dwarf galaxies (z< 0.03) between 19 <r< 21 with high completeness. We employ a convolutional neural network (CNN) to select high-priority targets. The LOW-Zsurvey has already obtained over 22,000 redshifts of dwarf galaxies (M*< 109M), comparable to the number of dwarf galaxies discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 and GAMA. As a spare fiber survey, LOW-Zcurrently receives fiber allocation for just ∼50% of its targets. However, we estimate that our selection is highly complete: for galaxies atz< 0.03 within our magnitude limits, we achieve better than 95% completeness with ∼1% efficiency using catalog-level photometric cuts. We also demonstrate that our CNN selectionsz< 0.03 galaxies from the photometric cuts subsample at least 10 times more efficiently while maintaining high completeness. The full 5 yr DESI program will expand the LOW-Zsample, densely mapping the low-redshift Universe, providing an unprecedented sample of dwarf galaxies, and providing critical information about how to pursue effective and efficient low-redshift surveys.

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  10. Redshift measurements, primarily obtained from host galaxies, are essential for inferring cosmological parameters from type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Matching SNe to host galaxies using images is non-trivial, resulting in a subset of SNe with mismatched hosts and thus incorrect redshifts. We evaluate the host galaxy mismatch rate and resulting biases on cosmological parameters from simulations modeled after the Dark Energy Survey 5-Year (DES-SN5YR) photometric sample. For both DES-SN5YR data and simulations, we employ the directional light radius method for host galaxy matching. In our SN Ia simulations, we find that 1.7% of SNe are matched to the wrong host galaxy, with redshift difference between the true and matched host of up to 0.6. Using our analysis pipeline, we determine the shift in the dark energy equation of state parameter (Dw) due to including SNe with incorrect host galaxy matches. For SN Ia-only simulations, we find Dw = 0.0013 +/- 0.0026 with constraints from the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Including core-collapse SNe and peculiar SNe Ia in the simulation, we find that Dw ranges from 0.0009 to 0.0032 depending on the photometric classifier used. This bias is an order of magnitude smaller than the expected total uncertainty on w from the DES-SN5YR sample of around 0.03. We conclude that the bias on w from host galaxy mismatch is much smaller than the uncertainties expected from the DES-SN5YR sample, but we encourage further studies to reduce this bias through better host-matching algorithms or selection cuts. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024