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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. Constraining the volatile content of magmas is critical to our understanding of eruptive processes and their deep Earth cycling essential to planetary habitability [R. Dasgupta, M. M. Hirschmann, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 298 , 1 (2010)]. Yet, much of the work thus far on magmatic volatiles has been dedicated to understanding their cycling through subduction zones. Further, studies of intraplate mafic volcanism have disproportionately focused on Hawaii [P. E. Wieser et al., Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 22 , e2020GC009364 (2021)], making assessments of the overall role of intraplate volcanoes in the global volatile cycles a challenge. Additionally, while mafic volcanoes are the most common landform on Earth and the Solar System [C. A. Wood, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 7 , 387–413 (1980)], they tend to be overlooked in favor of silicic volcanoes when it comes to their potential for explosivity. Here, we report primitive (olivine-hosted, with host Magnesium number – Mg# 78 to 88%) melt inclusion (MI) data from Fogo volcano, Cabo Verde, that suggest that oceanic intraplate silica-undersaturated explosive eruptions sample volatile-rich sources. Primitive MI (melt Mg# 70 to 71%) data suggest that these melts are oxidized (NiNiO to NiNiO+1) and very high in volatiles (up to 2 wt% CO 2 , 2.8 wt% H 2 O, 6,000 ppm S, 1,900 ppm F, and 1,100 ppm Cl) making Fogo a global endmember. Storage depths calculated from these high volatile contents also imply that magma storage at Fogo occurs at mantle depths (~20 to 30 km) and that these eruptions are fed from the mantle. Our results suggest that oceanic intraplate mafic eruptions are sustained from the mantle by high volatile concentrations inherited from their source and that deep CO 2 exsolution (here up to ~800 MPa) drives their ascent and explosivity. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 15, 2024
  3. Abstract Bromine is a key halogen element in the quantification of volcanic volatiles, but analytical difficulties in measuring its very low abundances have prevented progress in understanding its behavior and its role in volcanic emissions. We present a new data set of bromine, chlorine, and fluorine concentrations in melt inclusions and matrix glasses for two rhyolitic super-eruptions from the Toledo and Valles calderas, New Mexico, USA. We show that before eruption, Br and Cl were efficiently partitioned from the gas-saturated magma into a separate fluid phase, and we calculate the mass of halogens in the fluid phase. We further demonstrate that syn-eruptive magma degassing was negligible during the super-eruptions, so that the main source of halogen emissions must have been the fluid phase. If the fluid phase were erupted, the large mass of Br and Cl could have severely impacted the atmospheric chemistry upon eruption. 
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  4. Abstract

    Coral strontium‐to‐calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) provide quantitative estimates of past sea surface temperatures (SST) that allow for the reconstruction of changes in the mean state and climate variations, such as the El Nino‐Southern Oscillation, through time. However, coral Sr/Ca ratios are highly susceptible to diagenesis, which can impart artifacts of 1–2°C that are typically on par with the tropical climate signals of interest. Microscale sampling via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) for the sampling of primary skeletal material in altered fossil corals, providing much‐needed checks on fossil coral Sr/Ca‐based paleotemperature estimates. In this study, we employ a set modern and fossil corals from Palmyra Atoll, in the central tropical Pacific, to quantify the accuracy and reproducibility of SIMS Sr/Ca analyses relative to bulk Sr/Ca analyses. In three overlapping modern coral samples, we reproduce bulk Sr/Ca estimates within ±0.3% (1σ). We demonstrate high fidelity between 3‐month smoothed SIMS coral Sr/Ca timeseries and SST (R = −0.5 to −0.8;p < 0.5). For lightly‐altered sections of a young fossil coral from the early‐20th century, SIMS Sr/Ca timeseries reproduce bulk Sr/Ca timeseries, in line with our results from modern corals. Across a moderately‐altered section of the same fossil coral, where diagenesis yields bulk Sr/Ca estimates that are 0.6 mmol too high (roughly equivalent to −6°C artifacts in SST), SIMS Sr/Ca timeseries track instrumental SST timeseries. We conclude that 3–4 SIMS analyses per month of coral growth can provide a much‐needed quantitative check on the accuracy of fossil coral Sr/Ca‐derived estimates of paleotemperature, even in moderately altered samples.

     
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