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  1. Revealing anisotropic nature of 2D superconductivity in the context of electronic structure, orbital character, and spin texture.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 15, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Polar skyrmions are predicted to emerge from the interplay of elastic, electrostatic and gradient energies, in contrast to the key role of the anti-symmetric Dzyalozhinskii-Moriya interaction in magnetic skyrmions. Here, we explore the reversible transition from a skyrmion state (topological charge of −1) to a two-dimensional, tetratic lattice of merons (with topological charge of −1/2) upon varying the temperature and elastic boundary conditions in [(PbTiO3)16/(SrTiO3)16]8membranes. This topological phase transition is accompanied by a change in chirality, from zero-net chirality (in meronic phase) to net-handedness (in skyrmionic phase). We show how scanning electron diffraction provides a robust measure of the local polarization simultaneously with the strain state at sub-nm resolution, while also directly mapping the chirality of each skyrmion. Using this, we demonstrate strain as a crucial order parameter to drive isotropic-to-anisotropic structural transitions of chiral polar skyrmions to non-chiral merons, validated with X-ray reciprocal space mapping and phase-field simulations.

  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 14, 2023
  4. Efficient manipulation of antiferromagnetically coupled materials that are integration-friendly and have strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is of great interest for low-power, fast, dense magnetic storage and computing. Here, we report a distinct, giant bulk damping-like spin–orbit torque in strong-PMA ferrimagnetic Fe 100− x Tb x single layers that are integration-friendly (composition-uniform, amorphous, and sputter-deposited). For sufficiently thick layers, this bulk torque is constant in the efficiency per unit layer thickness, [Formula: see text]/ t, with a record-high value of 0.036 ± 0.008 nm −1 , and the damping-like torque efficiency [Formula: see text] achieves very large values for thick layers, up to 300% for 90 nm layers. This giant bulk torque by itself switches tens of nm thick Fe 100− x Tb x layers that have very strong PMA and high coercivity at current densities as low as a few MA/cm 2 . Surprisingly, for a given layer thickness, [Formula: see text] shows strong composition dependence and becomes negative for composition where the total angular momentum is oriented parallel to the magnetization rather than antiparallel. Our findings of giant bulk spin torque efficiency and intriguing torque-compensation correlation will stimulate study of such unique spin–orbit phenomena in a variety of ferrimagnetic hosts. This workmore »paves a promising avenue for developing ultralow-power, fast, dense ferrimagnetic storage and computing devices.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 8, 2023
  6. Abstract

    Understanding lattice deformations is crucial in determining the properties of nanomaterials, which can become more prominent in future applications ranging from energy harvesting to electronic devices. However, it remains challenging to reveal unexpected deformations that crucially affect material properties across a large sample area. Here, we demonstrate a rapid and semi-automated unsupervised machine learning approach to uncover lattice deformations in materials. Our method utilizes divisive hierarchical clustering to automatically unveil multi-scale deformations in the entire sample flake from the diffraction data using four-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy (4D-STEM). Our approach overcomes the current barriers of large 4D data analysis without a priori knowledge of the sample. Using this purely data-driven analysis, we have uncovered different types of material deformations, such as strain, lattice distortion, bending contour, etc., which can significantly impact the band structure and subsequent performance of nanomaterials-based devices. We envision that this data-driven procedure will provide insight into materials’ intrinsic structures and accelerate the discovery of materials.

  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 5, 2023