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  1. ABSTRACT It has been suggested that strongly magnetized and rapidly rotating protoneutron stars (PNSs) may produce long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) originating from stellar core collapse. We explore the steady-state properties and heavy element nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds from such PNSs whose magnetic axis is generally misaligned with the axis of rotation. We consider a wide variety of central engine properties such as surface dipole field strength, initial rotation period, and magnetic obliquity to show that heavy element nuclei can be synthesized in the radially expanding wind. This process is facilitated provided the outflow is Poynting-flux dominated such that its low entropy and fast expansion time-scale enables heavy nuclei to form in a more efficient manner as compared to the equivalent thermal GRB outflows. We also examine the acceleration and survival of these heavy nuclei and show that they can reach sufficiently high energies ≳ 1020 eV within the same physical regions that are also responsible for powering gamma-ray emission, primarily through magnetic dissipation processes. Although these magnetized outflows generally fail to achieve the production of elements heavier than lanthanides for our explored electron fraction range 0.4–0.6, we show that they are more than capable of synthesizing nuclei near and beyondmore »iron peak elements.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 13, 2023
  2. ABSTRACT Luminosity evolution of some stripped-envelope supernovae such as Type I superluminous supernovae is difficult to explain by the canonical 56Ni nuclear decay heating. A popular alternative heating source is rapid spin-down of strongly magnetized rapidly rotating neutron stars (magnetars). Recent observations have indicated that Type I superluminous supernovae often have bumpy light curves with multiple luminosity peaks. The cause of bumpy light curves is unknown. In this study, we investigate the possibility that the light-curve bumps are caused by variations of the thermal energy injection from magnetar spin-down. We find that a temporal increase in the thermal energy injection can lead to multiple luminosity peaks. The multiple luminosity peaks caused by the variable thermal energy injection is found to be accompanied by significant increase in photospheric temperature, and photospheric radii are not significantly changed. We show that the bumpy light curves of SN 2015bn and SN 2019stc can be reproduced by temporarily increasing magnetar spin-down energy input by a factor of 2–3 for 5–20 d. However, not all the light-curve bumps are accompanied by the clear photospheric temperature increase as predicted by our synthetic models. In particular, the secondary light-curve bump of SN 2019stc is accompanied by a temporal increase in photospheric radii rather thanmore »temperature, which is not seen in our synthetic models. We therefore conclude that not all the light-curve bumps observed in luminous supernovae are caused by the variable thermal energy injection from magnetar spin-down and some bumps are likely caused by a different mechanism.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. Abstract The joint detection of gravitational waves and the gamma-ray counterpart of a binary neutron star merger event, GW170817, unambiguously validates the connection between short gamma-ray bursts and compact binary object (CBO) mergers. We focus on a special scenario where short gamma-ray bursts produced by CBO mergers are embedded in disks of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and we investigate the γ -ray emission produced in the internal dissipation region via synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton, and external inverse Compton (EIC) processes. In this scenario, isotropic thermal photons from the AGN disks contribute to the EIC component. We show that a low-density cavity can be formed in the migration traps, leading to the embedded mergers producing successful GRB jets. We find that the EIC component would dominate the GeV emission for typical CBO mergers with an isotropic-equivalent luminosity of L j ,iso = 10 48.5 erg s −1 that are located close to the central supermassive black hole. Considering a long-lasting jet of duration T dur ∼ 10 2 –10 3 s, we find that the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be able to detect its 25–100 GeV emission out to a redshift z = 1.0. In the optimistic case, it ismore »possible to detect the on-axis extended emission simultaneously with GWs within one decade using MAGIC, H.E.S.S., VERITAS, CTA, and LHAASO-WCDA. Early diagnosis of prompt emissions with Fermi-GBM and HAWC can provide valuable directional information for the follow-up observations.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. ABSTRACT Extremely bright coherent radio bursts with millisecond duration, reminiscent of cosmological fast radio bursts, were codetected with anomalously-hard X-ray bursts from a Galactic magnetar SGR 1935 + 2154. We investigate the possibility that the event was triggered by the magnetic energy injection inside the magnetosphere, thereby producing magnetically-trapped fireball (FB) and relativistic outflows simultaneously. The thermal component of the X-ray burst is consistent with a trapped FB with an average temperature of ∼200–300 keV and size of ∼105 cm. Meanwhile, the non-thermal component of the X-ray burst and the coherent radio burst may arise from relativistic outflows. We calculate the dynamical evolution of the outflow, launched with an energy budget of 1039–1040 erg comparable to that for the trapped FB, for different initial baryon load η and magnetization σ0. If hard X-ray and radio bursts are both produced by the energy dissipation of the outflow, the outflow properties are constrained by combining the conditions for photon escape and the intrinsic timing offset ≲ 10 ms among radio and X-ray burst spikes. We show that the hard X-ray burst must be generated at rX ≳ 108 cm from the magnetar, irrespective of the emission mechanism. Moreover, we find that the outflow quickly accelerates upmore »to a Lorentz factor of 102 ≲ Γ ≲ 103 by the time it reaches the edge of the magnetosphere and the dissipation occurs at 1012 cm ≲ rradio, X ≲ 1014 cm. Our results imply either extremely-clean (η ≳ 104) or highly-magnetized (σ0 ≳ 103) outflows, which might be consistent with the rarity of the phenomenon.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 17, 2023
  5. Abstract Galaxy clusters are considered to be gigantic reservoirs of cosmic rays (CRs). Some of the clusters are found with extended radio emission, which provides evidence for the existence of magnetic fields and CR electrons in the intra-cluster medium. The mechanism of radio halo (RH) emission is still under debate, and it has been believed that turbulent reacceleration plays an important role. In this paper, we study the reacceleration of CR protons and electrons in detail by numerically solving the Fokker–Planck equation, and show how radio and gamma-ray observations can be used to constrain CR distributions and resulting high-energy emission for the Coma cluster. We take into account the radial diffusion of CRs and follow the time evolution of their one-dimensional distribution, by which we investigate the radial profile of the CR injection that is consistent with the observed RH surface brightness. We find that the required injection profile is nontrivial, depending on whether CR electrons have a primary or secondary origin. Although the secondary CR electron scenario predicts larger gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes, it is in tension with the observed RH spectrum for hard injection indexes, α < 2.45. This tension is relaxed if the turbulent diffusion of CRsmore »is much less efficient than the fiducial model, or the reacceleration is more efficient for lower-energy CRs. In both the secondary and primary scenario, we find that galaxy clusters can make a sizable contribution to the all-sky neutrino intensity if the CR energy spectrum is nearly flat.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 30, 2022
  6. Abstract Particles may be accelerated in magnetized coronae via magnetic reconnections and/or plasma turbulence, leading to high-energy neutrinos and soft γ -rays. We evaluate the detectability of neutrinos from nearby bright Seyfert galaxies identified by X-ray measurements. In the disk-corona model, we find that NGC 1068 is the most promising Seyfert galaxy in the Northern sky, where IceCube is the most sensitive, and show prospects for the identification of aggregated neutrino signals from Seyfert galaxies bright in X-rays. Moreover, we demonstrate that nearby Seyfert galaxies are promising targets for the next generation of neutrino telescopes such as KM3NeT and IceCube-Gen2. For KM3NeT, Cen A can be the most promising source in the Southern sky if a significant fraction of the observed X-rays come from the corona, and it could be identified in few years of KM3NeT operation. Our results reinforce the idea that hidden cores of supermassive black holes are the dominant sources of the high-energy neutrino emission and underlines the necessity of better sensitivity to medium-energy ranges in future neutrino detectors for identifying the origin of high-energy cosmic neutrinos.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  7. Abstract

    The Universe is filled with a diffuse background of MeV gamma-rays and PeV neutrinos, whose origins are unknown. Here, we propose a scenario that can account for both backgrounds simultaneously. Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei have hot accretion flows where thermal electrons naturally emit soft gamma rays via Comptonization of their synchrotron photons. Protons there can be accelerated via turbulence or reconnection, producing high-energy neutrinos via hadronic interactions. We demonstrate that our model can reproduce the gamma-ray and neutrino data. Combined with a contribution by hot coronae in luminous active galactic nuclei, these accretion flows can explain the keV – MeV photon and TeV – PeV neutrino backgrounds. This scenario can account for the MeV background without non-thermal electrons, suggesting a higher transition energy from the thermal to nonthermal Universe than expected. Our model is consistent with X-ray data of nearby objects, and testable by future MeV gamma-ray and high-energy neutrino detectors.