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  1. Abstract In this paper, we present the first results from a CARMA high-resolution 12 CO(1-0), 13 CO(1-0), and C 18 O(1-0) molecular line survey of the North America and Pelican (NAP) Nebulae. CARMA observations have been combined with single-dish data from the Purple Mountain 13.7 m telescope, to add short spacings and to produce high-dynamic-range images. We find that the molecular gas is predominantly shaped by the W80 H ii bubble, driven by an O star. Several bright rims noted in the observation are probably remnant molecular clouds, heated and stripped by the massive star. Matching these rims in molecularmore »lines and optical images, we construct a model of the three-dimensional structure of the NAP complex. Two groups of molecular clumps/filaments are on the near side of the bubble: one is being pushed toward us, whereas the other is moving toward the bubble. Another group is on the far side of the bubble, and moving away. The young stellar objects in the Gulf region reside in three different clusters, each hosted by a cloud from one of the three molecular clump groups. Although all gas content in the NAP is impacted by feedback from the central O star, some regions show no signs of star formation, while other areas clearly exhibit star formation activity. Additional molecular gas being carved by feedback includes cometary structures in the Pelican Head region, and the boomerang features at the boundary of the Gulf region. The results show that the NAP complex is an ideal place for the study of feedback effects on star formation.« less
  2. ABSTRACT We have carried out mapping observations of molecular emission lines of HC3N and CH3OH toward two massive cluster-forming clumps, NGC 2264-C and NGC 2264-D, using the Nobeyama 45-m radio telescope. We derive an I(HC3N)/I(CH3OH) integrated intensity ratio map, showing a higher value at clumps including 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) point sources at the northern part of NGC 2264-D. Possible interpretations of the I(HC3N)/I(CH3OH) ratio are discussed. We have also observed molecular emission lines from CCS and N2H+ toward five positions in each clump. We investigate the N(N2H+)/N(CCS) and N(N2H+)/N(HC3N) column density ratios among the ten positions inmore »order to test whether they can be used as chemical evolutionary indicators in these clumps. The N(N2H+)/N(CCS) ratio shows a very high value toward a bright embedded IR source (IRS1), whereas the N(N2H+)/N(HC3N) ratio at IRS1 is comparable with those at the other positions. These results suggest that ultraviolet radiation affects the chemistry around IRS1. We find that there are positive correlations between these column density ratios and the excitation temperatures of N2H+, which implies the chemical evolution of clumps. These chemical evolutionary indicators likely reflect the combination of evolution along the filamentary structure and evolution of each clump.« less
  3. Abstract We introduce new analysis methods for studying the star cluster formation processes in Orion A, especially examining the scenario of a cloud–cloud collision. We utilize the CARMA–NRO Orion survey 13CO (1–0) data to compare molecular gas to the properties of young stellar objects from the SDSS III IN-SYNC survey. We show that the increase of $v_{\rm {}^{13}CO} - v_{\rm YSO}$ and Σ scatter of older YSOs can be signals of cloud–cloud collision. SOFIA-upGREAT 158 μm [C ii] archival data toward the northern part of Orion A are also compared to the 13CO data to test whether the position and velocity offsets between the emissionmore »from these two transitions resemble those predicted by a cloud–cloud collision model. We find that the northern part of Orion A, including regions ONC-OMC-1, OMC-2, OMC-3, and OMC-4, shows qualitative agreements with the cloud–cloud collision scenario, while in one of the southern regions, NGC 1999, there is no indication of such a process in causing the birth of new stars. On the other hand, another southern cluster, L 1641 N, shows slight tendencies of cloud–cloud collision. Overall, our results support the cloud–cloud collision process as being an important mechanism for star cluster formation in Orion A.« less
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  5. Abstract We have obtained sensitive dust continuum polarization observations at 850 μ m in the B213 region of Taurus using POL-2 on SCUBA-2 at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the B -fields in STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey. These observations allow us to probe magnetic field ( B -field) at high spatial resolution (∼2000 au or ∼0.01 pc at 140 pc) in two protostellar cores (K04166 and K04169) and one prestellar core (Miz-8b) that lie within the B213 filament. Using the Davis–Chandrasekhar–Fermi method, we estimate the B -field strengths in K04166, K04169, and Miz-8b to be 38more »± 14, 44 ± 16, and 12 ± 5 μ G, respectively. These cores show distinct mean B -field orientations. The B -field in K04166 is well ordered and aligned parallel to the orientations of the core minor axis, outflows, core rotation axis, and large-scale uniform B -field, in accordance with magnetically regulated star formation via ambipolar diffusion taking place in K04166. The B -field in K04169 is found to be ordered but oriented nearly perpendicular to the core minor axis and large-scale B -field and not well correlated with other axes. In contrast, Miz-8b exhibits a disordered B -field that shows no preferred alignment with the core minor axis or large-scale field. We found that only one core, K04166, retains a memory of the large-scale uniform B -field. The other two cores, K04169 and Miz-8b, are decoupled from the large-scale field. Such a complex B -field configuration could be caused by gas inflow onto the filament, even in the presence of a substantial magnetic flux.« less