High-resolution CARMA Observation of Molecular Gas in the North America and Pelican Nebulae
Abstract In this paper, we present the first results from a CARMA high-resolution 12 CO(1-0), 13 CO(1-0), and C 18 O(1-0) molecular line survey of the North America and Pelican (NAP) Nebulae. CARMA observations have been combined with single-dish data from the Purple Mountain 13.7 m telescope, to add short spacings and to produce high-dynamic-range images. We find that the molecular gas is predominantly shaped by the W80 H ii bubble, driven by an O star. Several bright rims noted in the observation are probably remnant molecular clouds, heated and stripped by the massive star. Matching these rims in molecular lines and optical images, we construct a model of the three-dimensional structure of the NAP complex. Two groups of molecular clumps/filaments are on the near side of the bubble: one is being pushed toward us, whereas the other is moving toward the bubble. Another group is on the far side of the bubble, and moving away. The young stellar objects in the Gulf region reside in three different clusters, each hosted by a cloud from one of the three molecular clump groups. Although all gas content in the NAP is impacted by feedback from the central O star, some regions more »
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10347680
Journal Name:
The Astronomical Journal
Volume:
161
Issue:
5
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
229
ISSN:
0004-6256
3. Abstract We introduce new analysis methods for studying the star cluster formation processes in Orion A, especially examining the scenario of a cloud–cloud collision. We utilize the CARMA–NRO Orion survey 13CO (1–0) data to compare molecular gas to the properties of young stellar objects from the SDSS III IN-SYNC survey. We show that the increase of $v_{\rm {}^{13}CO} - v_{\rm YSO}$ and Σ scatter of older YSOs can be signals of cloud–cloud collision. SOFIA-upGREAT 158 μm [C ii] archival data toward the northern part of Orion A are also compared to the 13CO data to test whether the position and velocity offsets between the emission from these two transitions resemble those predicted by a cloud–cloud collision model. We find that the northern part of Orion A, including regions ONC-OMC-1, OMC-2, OMC-3, and OMC-4, shows qualitative agreements with the cloud–cloud collision scenario, while in one of the southern regions, NGC 1999, there is no indication of such a process in causing the birth of new stars. On the other hand, another southern cluster, L 1641 N, shows slight tendencies of cloud–cloud collision. Overall, our results support the cloud–cloud collision process as being an important mechanism for star cluster formation in Orion A.